Benjamin Ingelow (1834/35-1925) was born in Ipswich, the son of a banker. In 1852 he became a pupil of A S Newman, moving to the office of W Slater in 1858. He became the chief assistant in the practice of Slater and R H Carpenter that emerged around this time. From 1862 he oversaw the building of the cathedral in Honolulu, designed by the practice. After Slater’s death in 1872 he became Carpenter’s partner, though he also worked on his own account and continued to do so after Carpenter in turn died.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Leonard, Aldrington (1876-78 - as Carpenter and I, incorporating old fragments); Highbrook (1884 - as Carpenter and I)
Restored: Ardingly (1887 - as Carpenter and I); Lewes, - All Saints (1872); - Southover (1883-84 - as Carpenter and I); New Shoreham (1895-96)
Fitting: New Shoreham, pulpit
H C Ingram
Herbert Clavell Ingram (1877-1942) was the son of the rector of St Margaret Lothbury in the City and became a pupil of Bodley and Garner. He was assistant to each in turn after their partnership ended, before setting up in his own practice. According to his entry in WWA 1914 this was in 1901 and his address was in 9 Ironmonger Lane, City, close to his father’s rectory, where he was living in that year. He served in the Army during World War I, though remaining listed in KD/L as an architect at the same address until 1920. By 1926 he was living at Highwood near Chelmsford, Essex, where he died. Apart from churches he worked on country houses.
Restored: Brighton and Hove, - St Michael (nd - possibly the organ gallery, thought to be of 1912)
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, - St Paul, rood figures.
G C V Inkpen
See G C Vernon-Inkpen
Walter Inskipp (1797/98-1855), the surveyor who produced a design for Sedlescombe church in 1836, is listed as a surveyor in Hastings in 1832 and 1840 (PD) and was still resident in the town at 3 White Rock Place in the year of his death (KD). He is also listed there in 1841 and 1851 and James Inskipp, surveyor of buildings at Battle in 1840 (PD) is probably connected. So probably is Frederick Charles Inskipp of Barrack Ground, Hastings, who as well as being a surveyor in 1840 (PD) and 1851 (KD) was a registrar of births and deaths.
Extended: Sedlescombe (1836 - possibly never carried out)
H W Inwood and W Inwood
William Inwood (1771/72-1843) and Henry William Inwood (1794-1843) were father and son, who worked closely together, especially in North London, where they lived. The father trained as a surveyor, but designed a number of buildings in later life. His son started in his father’s office and was initially active mainly as a surveyor, though he appears to have taken the lead in designing the tower at East Grinstead, despite his extreme youth. Father and son won the competition for the new St Pancras church in London and Henry visited Athens to study its architecture at first hand, since the church was Grecian in style. A number of other churches followed, increasingly in the gothic style. The father fell upon hard times and the son’s attempts at gothic were generally unhappy. In 1843 Henry decided to go to Spain, but perished in a shipwreck on the way. By a strange co-incidence, his father had died three days before.
Lit: DNB (both)
Completed: East Grinstead (1811-13)
J C L Iredel J C L Iredell
John Charles L Iredel or Iredell (1916-90) generally used the first spelling of his name professionally, but his birth and death were registered with two Ls. The faculties for the work he did at Buxted give his address as 8 Palmeira Square, Hove, where he died. He was one of the Diocesan Panel of Architects.
Designed: Worthing, - Emmanuel (1975-76 - dem)
Restored: Buxted (1969-70)
Christopher Ironside (1913-92) trained initially as a painter and shared exhibitions with his brother Robin (1912-65), whose style was close to Surrealism. Christopher, after teaching at a school in Kensington run by his aunt, taught at the Royal College of Art. He was also a sculptor and designer, with a particular interest in coins and medals. His best known work was the reverses of the first British decimal coinage, but he also made designs for the coins of several other states. He undertook several commissions for memorials in the form of brasses, though these were etched rather than engraved, and also worked on stage sets.
Obit: The Times 15 July 1992; NAL Information file
Memorial: Arundel (Fitzalan Chapel), brass
Isaac Irwin (b1915) studied in his native city of Glasgow and later moved to Southampton. Known as a glass engraver, he also designed stained glass.
Glass: Horsham, - Holy Trinity
George Washington Henry Jack (1855-1931) was of Scots parentage, though born in the USA as his name suggests. He trained as an architect and in 1882 became assistant to P Webb, to whose practice he succeeded in 1900. His architectural commissions were mostly domestic. He was also active in the SPAB and either through this or because of his connection with Webb he was introduced to W Morris and started to design furniture for Morris and Co. Thereafter, he was increasingly active in this area and as a woodcarver, a craft which he taught at the Royal College of Art and about which he also wrote. Unsurprisingly with such a background, he became an enthusiastic follower of the Arts and Crafts movement, joining the Art Workers Guild. As well as furniture, he designed and made stained glass.
Lit: P Cormack: George Jack, Architect and Designer-Craftsman, Waltham Forest, 2006
Carving: Eastbourne, - St Saviour
F H Jackson
Frederick Hamilton Jackson (1848-1923) was a London painter and writer, who studied at the Slade School, the RA Schools and under Sir Edward Poynter. Later, in 1880 he founded the Chiswick School of Art and developed a particular interest in work for churches. As a member of the Art Workers Guild, he designed murals, as well as writing illustrated travel books. He also designed a small amount of stained glass, including in Sussex part of one window at Uckfield for J Powell and Sons.
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, - St Bartholomew, mosaics
J E Jackson
John Edwin Jackson (1912-89) was articled to his father, who was also an architect, in Ashford, Kent. In 1951 they formed a partnership, with an office in Folkestone as well. His father died in 1953 and by 1961 he was living and working in the Worthing area. In 1964-65 he had a local address, 69 Wallace Avenue, Worthing, when he worked with N F C Cachemaille-Day on the completion of St John, West Worthing. He did further work there alone in the following year.
Completed: Worthing, - St John, West Worthing (1964-65 (with Cachemaille-Day) and 1966)
Repaired: Linch (1951-53)
Philip Henry Christopher Jackson (b1944) was born in Inverness, but attended Farnham School of Art, where he trained as a sculptor. He has produced numerous public statues, including an equestrian one of the Queen (2002) in Windsor Great Park and a large one of Bobby Moore outside the new Wembley stadium (2007). He has also produced religious works, of which two of the most prominent are a Christ in Judgement and a St Richard in Chichester cathedral. He now lives at Midhurst.
Sir T G Jackson
Sir Thomas Graham Jackson, Bart (1835-1924) was educated at Brighton College and Oxford. He was articled to Sir George G Scott, whom he assisted on the reconstruction of Chichester cathedral tower and spire before starting on his own in 1863. He was later critical of Scott, particularly in his Modern Gothic Architecture, one of the many books he wrote. He was also a non-resident fellow of Wadham College, Oxford from 1864-80 and a member of the Art Workers Guild, of which he was master in 1896. J C Powell of J Powell and Sons was a friend and Jackson frequently recommended the firm's glass, as well as designing over 30 windows for the company himself. According to D Hadley these 'are generally saved from dullness only by an attractive use of colour'. Jackson also designed glass tableware for the firm. His friendship with the Rev Henry Nicholls of Madehurst led to the restoration of the church and to other commissions in the vicinity. His extensive work at Oxford, mostly in the Renaissance style, led to the facetious suggestion that the city should be renamed ‘Jacksonville’. Despite his heavy workload, he restored churches throughout his life. Unusually, he received a baronetcy in 1913, in recognition of his work on replacing the foundations of the nave of Winchester cathedral.
Lit: Sir T G Jackson: Recollections, edited and revised 2003
Advised: Brighton and Hove, - St Augustine (1894-1913 – consultant); Rye (1908)
Restored: Binsted (1866-68); Burpham (1868-69); Madehurst (1863-64); Playden (1898); Slindon (1866-67)
Glass: Binsted; Slindon
Jessie Mary Jacob (1890-1933) had a studio at Strand Green in North London and belonged to the Society of Master Glass Painters. Little else is known of her known of her, though she seems to have spent all her life in north east London, for she was born in Edmonton, Middlesex.
Glass: Icklesham; Lewes, - St Anne; - St John the Baptist, Southover
Isaac James (who is found between 1600-24/25 and whose real name was Harrer), was of Dutch ancestry. Unusually, he lived and worked in Westminster, not Southwark. He is described as a ‘tomb-maker’ and his work is less stiff than that of the previous generation of sculptors, though his designs varied little. Among his pupils was N Stone the Elder.
Memorial: Friston (attr)
W James and Co
William James and Co were an established glassworks in Camden Town by 1870, though listed also in KD/L from the start under stained glass artists. At later dates the company is to be found in other parts of north London, including 72 Willis Road, Kentish Town, when it is described as an ornamental glass works. Later they were situated in Hythe Road there and had moved to Willesden by 1920, where they were to be found until 1940. Like other such companies in London, they probably bought in designs to fulfil orders for stained glass.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, - Chapel Royal
A W Jeffery
Albert Wilson Jeffery (1840/41-1915) was born in Northampton, the son of a solicitor, but by the age of 10 was at a boarding school at Cheriton, Kent. That probably explains why in 1861 he was an articled clerk to Martin Bulmer of Strood, Kent and living in his household. Exactly why he chose to settle in Hastings is not known, but by 1871 he was in practice there. His partners were W Skiller and initially also G Voysey. As Jeffery and Skiller the firm designed a number of public buildings in the south. Both Jeffery’s sons were architects and the practice by 1905 (KD) was known as A W Jeffery and Son. One son was called Frank and seems to have been mainly a quantity surveyor; the other Herbert (see immediately below) was his father's assistant and took over the practice. This had links with J D and W H Murray of Eastbourne and Hastings.
Designed: Hastings, - Emmanuel (1873-74)
Restored/extended: Guestling (1886 and 1890 (attr)); Hastings, - Christ Church, Blacklands (1886-90); - St Clement, Halton (1888 - probably, dem)
H M Jeffery
Herbert Murray Jeffery (1880-1954) in 1938-39 repaired St Mary-in-the-Castle, Hastings. He was the son of A W Jeffery (see immediately above) and in 1901 was his assistant. He afterwards took over the practice. Between at least 1911 and 1930 he was surveyor to Rye Rural District Council (KD), but his later career also included more conventional architectural work. In 1938 his office was 51 Havelock Road, Hastings (ibid) and he had a partner named N A E Wyatt. His middle name of Murray probably recalls at least one of J D and W H Murray, two local architects of that name, with whom his father had close professional dealings.
Repaired: Hastings, - St Mary-in-the-Castle (1938-39)
John J Jennings (1848-1919) called himself in 1881 a ‘Draughtsman for painted glass’ and is said to have trained at Lambeth Art School. He was born in Southwark, but little more is known of him, despite the long time that his company was active. In 1887 it was at 118 Clapham Road, Fulham and in 1908 at 96 Clapham Road (Post Office London County Suburbs), where he was last present in 1917 (KD/L). Among the outside designers Jennings employed was E A F Prynne.
There are mentions of Ralph Joanes in the Lewes area between 1838 and 1843, but he is probably the Ralph Joanes (b1800/01), architect and surveyor, who was living at Lansdowne Terrace, Chichester in 1841 and is also probably connected with the builder and surveyor of the same name who is listed at Horsham in 1811 (London and Country Directory). If so, he was rather peripatetic, since by the end of 1841 he was living permanently in Lewes, for though not listed in any directory there, his name is in LBPB for that year only. Ralph Joanes, said to be of Tunbridge Wells and a member of the Sussex Archaeological Society until his death in 1850 may, in view of the unusual spelling, be the same. The architect's wife, Hester (see the 1841 census), was living in Brighton in 1851 as a widow.
Designed: Stanmer (1838 – attr and possibly clerk of works)
Restored: Lewes, - St Anne (1844)
Richard Joanes appears to have been mainly a builder at Horsham and there are references to him there between c1760 and 1801; Ralph Jones, recorded at Horsham in 1811 (see immediately above) is likely to be connected. However, despite his long career, only one memorial is recorded.
Sir W Goscombe John
Sir William Goscombe John (1860-1952) was born in Cardiff, the son of a stonecarver who worked on Cardiff castle for W Burges. The son received his first training there before going in 1882 to London, where he worked for T Nicholls and attended the RA Schools; he also studied under the French sculptor, Jules Dalou who was then teaching in London. He showed early talent and spent several years in travel throughout western Europe, thanks to several benefactors, before setting up his own studio in London in 1892. For the rest of his life he produced a steady stream of academic and public statues, the latter including war and other memorials. His style was conservative but technically highly accomplished and particularly in his earlier years he was close to the New Sculpture Movement. He became ARA and in 1909 was elected a full RA.
Memorial: West Dean (W)
Garret Johnson (1541-1611) was born in the Netherlands, but had come to England by 1567 when he was settled in Southwark. He was one of the many Dutch and other foreign artisans, mostly refugees, who settled in Southwark as they were forbidden to work in the City. He married an English wife and became a British citizen, so his sons were eligible to join a guild. His large workshop is by far the best recorded in the late Elizabethan period and supplied monuments over much of the country. As his work at West Firle shows, Johnson worked in both stone and brass. The business was continued after his death by his sons with little change. His first name, found also as ‘Gerard’ or ‘Geraert’, was almost certainly originally ‘Gerrit’ and his last name was originally Janssen.
Brasses: Clapham (attr); Cuckfield, brasses (attr); Framfield (attr); West Firle
Monuments: Easebourne (attr); West Firle
M W Johnson
Matthew Wharton Johnson (1799/1800-1881) was born in Stepney and became a prolific sculptor, whose work is widely spread in England and beyond. He continued work until the end of his life - his latest work is actually dated 1882, 62 years after the first one recorded. He produced both monuments and garden sculpture. He is to be found at various addresses in London, settling finally in Southampton Street, Fitzroy Square.
Memorials: Brede; Cuckfield
R J Johnson
Robert James Johnson (1832-92) was articled to John Middleton of Darlington before he moved to London, where he was an assistant to Sir George G Scott from 1849 to 1858. He then returned briefly to North Shields, but in c1861 was again in London, before returning to the Newcastle area a second time, where with his partner Thomas Austin he purchased the former practice of the eminent Newcastle architect, John Dobson. Austin died within two years and Johnson, with various partners, continued the practice until obliged by a stroke to retire. He also had an address in Pimlico, London and died in Tunbridge Wells. He was Durham and Newcastle Diocesan Surveyor and his churches were mostly in the Perp style, though he used the Queen Anne style for many domestic buildings.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Woolbeding (1890?)
P M Johnston
Philip Mainwaring Johnston (1865-1936) was an architect who wrote many articles about Sussex churches, though his promised book was never published, and a pillar of the Sussex Archaeological Society. A pupil of John Belcher and like him a member of the Catholic Apostolic or Irvingite Church, he started in practice in 1881 and worked on churches and houses all over the Home Counties. Though he did not preserve everything he found, his approach was more cautious than that of earlier restorers and he had a particular interest in wall-paintings, as exemplified by his study of those at Hardham. He was architect to Chichester Cathedral.
Obit: The Times 19 Dec 1936
Restored: Brighton and Hove, - St Peter, Preston (1906); Chithurst (1911); Ford (1899-1900); Hardham (c1900); Linchmere (1906 and 1936); Lindfield (1931); Lyminster (1902 and 1933); North Stoke (1910); Poling (1917); Rogate (nd); Rottingdean (1917); Stoughton (1935 – possibly report only); Terwick (1910); Tortington (1904); Trotton (1903-04); Westbourne (1932-33); Yapton (1902)
Fittings etc: Clayton, lychgate; Hellingly (nd – before 1907); Selsey, - St Peter, reredos; Walberton, lychgate
Jude Jones (1844-1914) was born at Stanmer, where his father was a carpenter on the estate, as his son was to be after him. After working in Brighton, Jude Jones was back on the estate in 1881, living in an estate lodge. He rose to be foreman building (1891) and carpenter foreman (1901). His signature as foreman has been found in connection with repairs to Stanmer House in 1897. His son Francis Jude Jones (1873-1937) was also a carpenter and joiner who worked on the doors of Stanmer church.
(My thanks to David Jones who clarified a number of points about Jude and others of his forefathers)
Keith Jones designed the altar and canopy for St Michael and All Angels, Willingdon Road, Eastbourne, installed in 2005, but it has so far proved impossible to identify him more fully.
Fittings: Eastbourne, - St Michael and All Angels, Willingdon Road, altar and canopy
Jones and Willis
The firm was founded in Birmingham in the C18, primarily as a supplier of cloth for ecclesiastical purposes. In 1844 the Willis family re-founded it as a manufacturer and supplier of church fittings, initially known as Newton, Jones and Willis. In 1851 the firm was still only to be found in Birmingham, but at its peak later in the century it had a further workshop in London, attached to showrooms, as well as a branch in Liverpool. Pews and seats, metalwork, sculpture and stained glass were added to the company’s products and in 1899 they described themselves as ‘Church furnishers to Her Most Gracious Majesty’. The firm was still active in the 1940s. Most of their wares were sold from catalogues with designs from many sources, which appeared at steady intervals from 1846. The company advertised widely, including in the Chichester Diocesan Kalendar. Their glass was made at the London showrooms, which were in Great Russell Street (KD/L) under the management of Walter Willis. Most designers were anonymous, though F E Howard did some work.
Lit: Profile of the company, Arch J 3 p234 and 4 p188
Fittings: Appledram, font-cover; Bexhill - St Stephen, rails, lectern and font; Rottingdean, lectern; Worthing, - Christ Church, pulpit
Glass: Appledram (formerly); Brighton and Hove, - St Barnabas; - St Michael; Burwash Weald; Chichester, - St Pancras; Eastbourne, - Christ Church; East Lavant; East Wittering, - Assumption; Hellingly; Holtye Common; Horsham, - Holy Trinity; Horsted Keynes; Kingston Buci; Rudgwick; Hastings, - St Peter, Bohemia Road; Rusper; Steyning; Wilmington
Karin Jonzen (1914-98) was born in London of Swedish parents. She showed an early talent for drawing and was sent to the Slade School, but took up sculpture. Her work was based on the human figure - she consciously rejected modernism - and she produced a number of portrait busts.
Statues: Harting; Lewes, - St Anne
After an initial training in textile art at Winchester College of Art, Nicola Kantorowicz studied stained glass at the Central School of Art. She worked as an assistant to L Lee, before establishing her own studio at Sonning, Berkshire in 1988. Much of her work is non-figurative.
Glass: Boxgrove, Tangmere
C J Kay
See under C R B Godman
Joseph Kay (1775-1847) specialised in new developments and streets, mainly in London, where he laid out parts of Islington and Camden Town. After pupillage with Samuel Pepys Cockerell, he travelled on the continent, partly with R Smirke, before going into practice. His efforts to design public buildings met with limited success (Smirke ended up designing the new General Post Office in London, although Kay won the competition). He did, however, succeed to the position of Surveyor to Greenwich Hospital. In 1839 (Pigot’s Directory) his address was 6 Gower Street, London.
Designed: Hastings, - St Mary-in-the-Castle (new - 1825-28)
Henry Keene (1726-76) was a prolific and well connected architect who may have been a pupil of James Horne, whom he succeeded as Surveyor to the Fabric of Westminster Abbey. He designed country houses and worked on several Oxford colleges. During the 1760s he also worked in Ireland, though details of this period are few. He was proficient in the classical style, but was one of the first architects to use the revived gothic style, which he had good opportunity to study at both the Abbey and Oxford.
Altered: Westbourne (1770 - altered)
Charles Samuel Kelsey (1820-88) was born in Fulham and worked as a carver on public buildings in London and Liverpool. He trained at the RA, where he frequently exhibited between 1840 and 1877. In 1881, calling himself simply an artist, he was living in St Pancras; previously he had lived at various addresses in Lambeth and Chelsea.
C E Kempe
Charles Eamer Kempe (1834-1907) came from Ovingdean and later lived at Old Place, Lindfield, though his studio was in London. Despite the difference in spelling (he himself added the final -e), he belonged to the Kemp family best known for its association with Kemp Town, Brighton, so his background was prosperous and in later life he was able to sustain a business that can never have been hugely profitable. As a boy, he was a pupil of the vicar of Henfield and later went to Rugby and studied at Oxford. Already deeply religious with Tractarian leanings, he aspired to the ministry, but came to accept that this could not be reconciled with a severe speech impediment. Thereafter, as an alternative that would still allow close association with the Church, he joined the office of G F Bodley, already an eminent church architect. Though the extent of his training was limited, he worked as architect throughout his career, as well as designing decorative schemes and fittings for churches. Under Bodley's tutelage he took up decorative painting, though most of his work in this field dates from early in his career. He was already a prolific artist in stained glass, having studied with Clayton and Bell, for whom he produced his earliest designs, before turning to T Baillie and Co and then establishing his own business in 1866. He did not immediately start making his own glass and he was still feeling his way towards a style with which he was satisfied. During this period much of his glass was drawn by the pre-Raphaelite artist Arthur Hughes (1832-1915) and Kempe also undertook the restoration of mediaeval glass. By the 1880s he had evolved the dark colours and richly textured detail that characterised his mature work, which took as its main inspiration late mediaeval glass in both England and on the continent, especially Germany. Typical is the elaborate surface decoration, e g jewels and the feathers on angels’ wings. His best work glows with subdued light, but some is formulaic and sentimental, the detail fussy and the colouring muddy. Once he had attained a style that satisfied him, it changed little for the rest of his life, though the size of his business alone meant he had to leave the detailed design to others of the talented members of his workshop such as A E Tombleson, H W Bryans and and E Heasman; both the latter in addition undertook work on their own account that can be hard to distinguish. Others like J W Lisle were equally essential, although no independent glass by them is known. In Kempe's later years he took his cousin W Tower, chiefly an architect, into partnership and after his death Tower continued the business as Kempe and Co (see immediately below). The ledgers of the company survive from 1893 until Kempe and Co closed in 1934 and form the basis of P N H Collins’s work; all other records were destroyed after the company went out of business. Kempe at first signed his work intermittently with a triple wheatsheaf emblem taken from his coat of arms. After 1895, though still not used for every window, he adopted a single wheatsheaf, which remained unchanged for the rest of his life.
Lit: M Stavridi: Charles Eamer Kempe, 1988; P N H Collins: The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass, Liverpool, 2000
Restored: Cuckfield (1866, 1883-84 and 1891); Glynde (1894); Ovingdean (1869 – doubtful), Petworth (1903 with Tower)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - St Alban, altar; - St Michael, lectern; - St Nicholas, painted decoration and restored screen; Burgess Hill, - St John, pulpit and lectern; Chailey, - St Peter, pulpit; Crowborough, - All Saints, reredos etc; Cuckfield, pulpit; Findon, reredos surround (gone); Haywards Heath, - St Wilfrid, chancel ceiling (gone); Ovingdean, decoration, rood and reredos; Petworth, reredos and screen; Staplefield, decorations; Turners Hill, reredos (attr); Withyham, - St John, reredos; Worthing, - St Andrew, screen and other fittings
Glass: Barcombe; Bexhill, - St Mark, Little Common; Bignor; Boxgrove; Brighton and Hove, - St Augustine; - St Luke, Queen's Park; - St Mary; - St Nicholas; - St Paul; - St Peter; - St Peter, West Blatchington; - St Philip; Burpham; Bury; Buxted, - St Mary; Chailey, - St Mary; Coates; Coldwaltham; Coolhurst; Cowfold; Cuckfield; Danehill; Denton; Eastbourne, - St Peter, Meads (now in St Peter, Hydneye); East Grinstead, - St Swithun; East Lavant; Fittleworth; Fletching; Glynde; Groombridge; Hastings, - Holy Trinity; Henfield; Horsham, - St Mark (formerly, now in new church), - St Mary; Horsted Keynes; Hurstpierpoint; Kirdford; Lewes, - St John the Baptist, Southover; Lower Beeding; Oving; Ovingdean (made by T Baillie); Partridge Green; Patcham (attr); Petworth; Plaistow; Rye; Salehurst; Scaynes Hill; Seaford; Sedlescombe; Selmeston; Shermanbury; Shipley; Slaugham; South Malling; Southwick; Staplefield; Streat; Tortington; Turners Hill; Twineham; Warbleton; Washington; West Grinstead; West Hoathly; Westmeston; Withyham, - St John; - St Michael; Woodmancote; Woolbeding; Worthing, - St Andrew (much formerly in Brighton and Hove, - All Souls and - St James)
Kempe and Co
When C E Kempe (see immediately above) died in 1907, he left instructions that his studio should become a limited company under four of his closest associates. This was duly done and as Kempe and Co Ltd (never Kempe and Tower, as in BE), the company continued under his cousin W Tower. Tower was an architect by training and the main designer of glass was a former associate of Kempe, John William Lisle (1870-1927), who was one of the directors of the new company, as was A E Tombleson. The company's glass followed Kempe’s idiom but became increasingly routine and unimaginative. It can be distinguished from work produced under Kempe's direct supervision by flatter and duller designs with a greater use of clear or white glass. There was a changed rebus, with a tower superimposed on the wheatsheaf, giving the impression that Tower was more closely involved on the glass side than was the case. Other works, including memorials, reredoses and embroidery helped to keep the company afloat with orders from the USA and parts of the then Empire. However, attempts to modernise the company's style met with little success and in many cases glass by both Kempe and Kempe and Co is found in the same church, suggesting the later firm kept going largely by exploiting contacts that already existed. The economic downturn after 1929 affected the company's order book substantially and in 1934 it went out of business.
P N H Collins: The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass, Liverpool, 2000
Glass: Alfriston; Barcombe; Bexhill, - St Peter; Bodle Street Green; Boxgrove; Brighton and Hove, - St Augustine; - St Bartholomew; - St Peter; - St Michael; Burgess Hill, - St Andrew; - St John; Buxted, - St Margaret; - St Mary; Chichester, - All Saints, Portfield (formerly, now in St George); Clayton; Crawley Down; Cross-in-Hand; Danehill; Eastbourne, - St Peter, Meads (now in St Peter, Hydneye); Fittleworth; Fletching; Glynde; Groombridge; Henfield; High Hurstwood; Horsted Keynes; Hurstpierpoint; Kirdford; Lewes, - St John-sub-Castro; Lindfield; Lyminster; Midhurst; New Shoreham; Northiam; Offham; Oving; Ovingdean; Petworth; Plaistow; Selsey, - St Peter; Slaugham; Staplefield; Turners Hill; West Firle; West Hoathly; Wiston; Worthing, - St Andrew (formerly in Brighton and Hove, - All Souls and - St James)
H E Kendall
Henry Edward Kendall junior (1805-85) was a pupil of his father of the same name, who designed hospitals and workhouses and lived to be 98. Before the son went into independent practice, the two worked together and both were founder-members of what became the RIBA. He designed some large country houses, including one for the exiled Empress Eugénie at Farnborough, Hampshire, as well as parsonages, schools (on which he produced a book of designs) and a few churches. Among these was the chapel of the County Lunatic Asylum, later St Francis Mental Hospital, near Haywards Heath. He was District Surveyor for Hampstead from 1844 and in his final years was assisted by his nephew, Frederick Mew.
Obit: The Builder 48 pp883-84
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Patrick (1858)
J J P Kendrick
Joseph John Pinnix Kendrick (1790-1832) was the son of a London statuary, also Joseph. The son studied at the RA Schools and subsequently exhibited frequently at the RA. He produced a substantial number of monuments, but met several major disappointments when proposals were rejected or commissions were given to others and towards the end of his life experienced major financial problems, which, in the eyes of some contemporaries, contributed to his early death.
Memorials: Donnington; Madehurst
Eric Henri Kennington (1888-1960) was the son of a Liverpool portrait painter with a Swedish mother. He was initially a painter and draughtsman and his bold and economical drawings were widely admired. He served in World War I until wounded, after which he became a war artist. As such, he depicted the appalling conditions in the trenches. He had an especial reverence for Lawrence of Arabia, whose book The Seven Pillars of Wisdom he illustrated. At about the same time he turned increasingly to sculpture, much of it architectural, and carved the effigy on Lawrence’s tomb. He was again a war artist in World War II. Less known is his non-monumental sculpture, which shows the influence of native American and African work, sometimes reminiscent of J Epstein and closer to the European mainstream of the period. He became an RA in 1952.
Lit: NAL Information file; DNB; Obit: The Times 16 April 1960
Memorials: Brighton and Hove, - St Helen Hangleton (tombstone); Hammerwood
A W Kenyon
Arthur William Kenyon (1885-1969) was a native of Sheffield where he was articled to a local architect, Henry Leslie Paterson. In 1906 he moved to London and joined the practice of Niven and Wigglesworth. He succeeded in name to this practice in 1926 but there is some doubt about what he had done in the interim, for in 1924 he was in practice, apparently alone, at 22 Surrey Street, Strand (KD/L). Slightly earlier, he could also have been linked with the practice of Kenyon and Livock of Great James Street, SW1, found between 1920 and 1922 (ibid). Kenyon specialised in housing – he designed many houses at Welwyn Garden City and one type of prefab at the end of World War II. He wrote extensively and also designed hospitals, cinemas and schools. In his earlier career, he did some work with H Braddock, who also designed a church in Crawley.
Designed: Crawley, - St Barnabas, Pound Hill (1955)
Mathieu or Matthaus Kessels (1784-1836) was Belgian by birth, but settled and worked in Rome, where he had studied under the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. He produced both monuments and statues, including some for the British market.
See Barton, Kinder and Alderson.
T King and Sons
The firm of Thomas King and Sons of Bath can be traced from about 1760 to 1860. The founder (1741-1804) came from London and was later joined in the business by his two sons, Thomas and Charles; there was probably a third generation but this cannot be ascertained for certain. The firm produced both tablets and memorials of greater complexity, some of which were well designed, and they are to be found widely spread across the country.
A B Knapp-Fisher
Arthur Bedford Knapp-Fisher (1888-1965) was a pupil of C S Spooner, though after he went into practice by himself in 1912, he moved away from the Arts and Crafts idiom of his teacher. He reappears after World War I in 1922 as a partner of Knapp-Fisher, Powell and Russell at 135 Ebury Street, SW1 (KD/L). Knapp-Fisher designed many schools and hospitals and in the 1930s was professor of architecture at the Royal College of Art.
Designed: Crawley, - St Leonard, Langley Green (1954-55)
Charles E Knight (1901-90) was born at Hove and spent most of his life in Sussex; he studied locally and at the RA Schools. He became tutor to the present Queen and Princess Margaret. Later he lived at Ditchling and taught at Brighton College of Art. He was best known as a landscape artist in a conservative style, despite being taught by Walter Sickert and was a skilled watercolourist. He produced many scenes of Sussex for the wartime Recording Britain project. He also designed inn signs, probably in conjunction with his colleague at the Brighton College of Art, J L Denman, who was the main architect to the Kemp Town Brewery. His glass was made by both Lowndes and Drury and Barton, Kinder and Alderson.
Lit: NAL Information file
Glass: Brighton and Hove, - Good Shepherd; - St Matthias, Ditchling Road; Burwash Weald; Ditchling; Eridge Green; Hailsham; Hastings, - St John, Hollington; Horsted Keynes; Keymer; Seaford, - St Leonard
Paintings: Brighton and Hove, - St Patrick, Hove
Statue: Brighton and Hove, - Good Shepherd, Dyke Road
J E Knox
James Erskine Knox (1841-1918) was born in Lambeth, the son of a turner from whom he probably learned the first elements of woodworking. He was apprenticed to T Earp as a woodcarver, and was employed by him for several years. Among those for whom he subsequently worked were Somers Clarke junior and J F Bentley, whose assistant he was during the construction of Westminster cathedral. He was a member of the Art Workers Guild. After living at various addresses in south London, he settled finally in Wimbledon.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - St Martin, reredos and other fittings; Woolbeding, reredos, pulpit and pews
- Category: Architects and Artists
- Published: 21 May 2008