W G Habershon M E Habershon
William Gillbee Habershon (1818-92) and Matthew Edward Habershon (1828-1900) were the sons of Matthew Habershon (1789-1852), a successful architect of Yorkshire origin who settled in London and under whom they trained. William, considerably the older, joined another achitect, J O Abbott (who has so far eluded closer identification), in 1843 at St Neots, Huntingdonshire, where he was certainly still working in 1845, but now apparently on his own (B 3 p430). He appears to have remained in the district for several years more, for in 1847 he designed a school at Elsworth and commenced the restoration of Great Barford church, Bedfordshire, neither of them far away, in 1849. However, in 1851 he was already working with his brother when they designed Blendworth church, Hampshire and it seems likely that they were already based in London. That was certainly the case at the latest in the following year, when he and his brother, who had probably done little on his own previously as he had only been elected ARIBA earlier the same year, took over their father’s practice. Their large joint practice lasted until they went their separate ways in 1863 and they trained many architects. During this time, the brothers’ own work was generally more remarkable for its quantity than its quality. Once on his own, Edward, as he was known, went into successive partnerships, first with a former pupil Henry Spalding (1838-1910), of whom little is known save that he was a Londoner who lived in the Hampstead area, and from 1865 additionally with E P L Brock, who continued alone after Edward retired in 1879, as Spalding had already left. Before this Edward had lived in Speldhurst and Lee, Kent and by 1881 had moved to Charlwood Park, Surrey, calling himself a ‘gentleman’, where he spent the rest of his life. William in 1863 took Alfred Robert Pite (1832-1911), a former pupil, as his partner and from 1870 J F Fawkner, their managing clerk. Pite retired at an early age in 1877 and William followed shortly afterwards, around 1878, though his name was kept in the practice. After this it devolved on Fawkner, who had joined by 1857 and developed a second office at Newport, Mon, of which he took charge. Among the work of the firm in Wales, for which Fawkner was probably always primarily responsible, were nonconformist chapels, but churches by the practice during this later period are known, such as West Beckham, Norfolk (1890-91).
Lit: BAL Biog files; Obit of W G Habershon: The Builder 61 p335
W G Habershon:
Designed: Ashhurst Wood (1886, current church – attr but if so, probably by Fawkner); Brighton and Hove, – St John, Palmeira Square (1851-54 – joint); Hastings, – St Peter Baldslow (1863 – as ‘Habershon’ – dem); Partridge Green (1890 – actually Fawkner); Scaynes Hill (1858 – joint)
Restored/rebuilt: Newhaven (1853-54 – joint); Lower Beeding (1862 and 1884 – WGH only)
M E Habershon and Brock:
Designed: Copthorne (1877-80); Ebernoe (1867); Hastings, – St Andrew (1869-70 – dem 1970); Horsham, – St Mark (1870-88 – dem)
Restored/altered: Broadwater (nd); Dallington (1864); Hastings, – St Clement, Halton (1869 – dem); – St Leonard (1869 – bombed)
G C Haddon
George Cowley Haddon (1839-85) was born in Crick, Northamptonshire and was a pupil of William Lambie Moffat (later known as Moffatt (1807-82)), a Scottish architect who practised first in Doncaster, Yorkshire and later in Edinburgh. By the early 1860s Haddon was practising in Hereford with Edmund Wallace Elmslie (1820/21-1889) in the partnership of Elmslie, Franey and Haddon. They were responsible for at least one large scale housing development in the city, as well as commercial premises and several churches elsewhere in the county, whilst Elmslie himself did much work at Great Malvern, Worcestershire. Haddon left the partnership in 1866 (London Gazette, 11 May 1866), but continued to live and work in Hereford, where he was involved in the publication of Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford in 1876. From 1869 and probably until his death Haddon lived here in Bridge Street in a house that bore his middle name. 1869 is the date of the earliest known work he undertook in partnership with his significantly older brother, Henry Rockliffe Haddon (1823-93) under the name of Haddon Brothers; together they also did a considerable amount of work in Great Malvern which at that time was growing fast as a spa. When working away from Great Malvern, including at Hereford, G C Haddon probably had considerable autonomy since his brother lived at Great Malvern and appears to have taken the lead in their work there. The joint practice was active throughout the 1870s, though works are also to be found in G C Haddon’s name only. The pair worked largely locally, including the adjacent part of Wales and among their designs were schools, public buildings, houses, new churches and restorations, as well as a number of nonconformist chapels, notably an Italianate Baptist one at Ross-on-Wye in 1881. This was at the end of the practice, for G C Haddon at least had clearly overstretched himself; later in the same year he was declared bankrupt, with a final notice in the London Gazette on 14 February 1882. He is not heard of professionally again, but Henry apparently escaped involvement for there are subsequent references to him working on his own (e g new shops at Great Malvern in 1891 and a villa there which was not built until 1894, after his death).
Designed: Eastbourne – St Anne, Upperton Estate (1880 – dem)
M E Hadfield
Matthew Ellison Hadfield (1812-85) came of a South Yorkshire family, whose mother’s family worked for the Dukes of Norfolk. He himself started in the office of the Duke’s estates in Sheffield, before being articled from 1831 to 1834 to the Doncaster architectural practice of John Woodhead (d1838) and William Hurst (1787-1844). He then worked in the office of a London architect, Peter Frederick Robinson (1776-1858), who among other things had assisted William Porden (c1755-1822) in building what became the Dome at Brighton. Hadfield returned to Sheffield in 1836, where he started his own practice which he merged in 1838 with that of John Gray Weightman (1801/02-1872), shown in directories to have been established in the city by 1837. A devout Roman Catholic, Hadfield became the Duke’s architect in the area and designed many Catholic churches, all in the north, east Midlands or Ireland. His former pupil George Goldie (1828-87), another prolific designer of Catholic churches, joined as a further partner in 1850. In 1856 a London office was opened and this displeased Weightman (not a Catholic) so he left, spending his final years in Nottingham. The move to London seems to have been mainly for the benefit of Goldie who, however, himself left in 1860, leaving Hadfield alone. In 1864 he was joined by his son Charles (1840-1916), after which the practice was known as M E Hadfield and Son and which the son continued after his father’s death. In addition to churches, the practice designed railway buildings, both stations and hotels. Its successor, Hadfield Cawkwell Davidson, is still a leading practice, not only in Sheffield, where its office is to be found, but further afield in Britain and abroad. However it works entirely in the business and retail fields.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Anon: Matthew Ellison Hadfield, Yorkshire Architect 117 (Nov/Dec 1987) p30
Extended: Arundel (Fitzalan Chapel) (c1864)
Sir D Hall
Sir Douglas Bernard Hall (1866-1923) was the occupant of Burton Park and Unionist (Conservative) MP for the Isle of Wight. He was a great traveller, who became a baronet in 1919. As patron, his connection with the repair of Burton church was probably that of donor rather than architect, but the record is ambiguous.
Supported and possibly restored: Burton (1897)
J Hall and Sons
The firm of John Hall and Sons was established in Bristol as early as 1788 and exhibited its glass at the 1851 Great Exhibition. They also had a branch in London, where E J Prest was one of those who worked for them. The company increasingly turned to other forms of business including the sale and manufacture of paints, from 1922 under the Brolac trademark. lt ceased to be independent in 1948 but continued until the 1980s to produce stained glass and finally left the city in 1988. The director responsible for glass in the 1950s and until 1963 was F S Baldwin (no further details), who was also the designer. In the 1970s James Atkinson Crombie (1913-2000) also designed glass for the company.
Glass: Fishbourne; Pevensey; Portslade, – St Nicholas; Warbleton
J C Hall
Joseph Compton Hall (1863-1937) was born in Cork, but his father, a civil engineer, was from Manchester and he himself was back in Lancashire by 1871, where he was to train under J M Taylor and his brother Henry Medland Taylor (1837-1916), as well as Paley and Austin. Later he moved away from the north west and became a pupil of W White. He probably remained in London where he was established in practice by 1888, initially on his own, From about 1890 W O Milne became his partner. In 1902 the partnership ended (BN 82 p554) and Hall reverted to independent practice. His obituary and WWA entries ignore this period, which might suggest that the parting was not amicable. He was best known for designing and altering large houses, as well as being an accomplished watercolourist. In 1926 he was living in Reigate, Surrey (WWA 1926) and later moved to Burwash and then Litlington, where he died.
Obit: The Builder 152 p843
Restored: Ashburnham (1894 – as Milne and H); Ticehurst (1902 – as Milne and H)
Tom Hall commenced his study of sculpture at the then Brighton Polytechnic in 1991, continuing at the Wimbledon College of Art and finishing at the Royal College of Art. He now teaches at Bournemouth Arts University College.
Rowland Hawke Halls (1879-1919) was born at Roffey, but in 1901 was a surveyor’s assistant in Lewes, where he was later an architect and surveyor, with an office in Seveirg Chambers, In 1911 he was living in The Avenue, Lewes, but he subsequently moved to Seaford and designed at least one building in that area. His early death was caused by an accident.
Obit: The Builder 116 p321
Designed: South Heighton (c1904 – not executed)
Altered: Rottingdean (1909)
Patience Mary Hallward (1892-1981) was the daughter of R T Hallward (see immediately below). She was also an artist and trained with her father, whom she assisted, and never married. The whole family had moved to Newport, Cardiganshire, Wales by 1911, though there are records of them in London (mostly Ealing) between 1921 and 1939, Subsequently she at least moved with her father to Merionethshire, where both spent the rest of their lives. She travelled to undertake commissions in the USA, including Baltimore, Maryland.
(My thanks are due to Penny Hallward Gage for much of the above information)
Glass: East Wittering, – St Anne
Reginald Hallward (1858-1948) was born on the Isle of Wight and studied at the Slade School and what was to become the Royal College of Art, working initially an engraver and illustrator. Records vary as to his second name which is given as Francis in those of his birth and death, but he is also found with the middle initial T (not further elucidated). Peter Cormack suggests (Arts and Crafts Stained Glass p83) that his first involvement in stained glass was when the increasingly successful C Whall needed assistance with the completion of one of his major projects, as also happened with L Davis and he married in 1886 whilst living at Dorking, in close association with Whall. In 1881, before his move there, he had had premises in Kensington to which he returned, but by 1901 he had moved to Shorne, Kent. His work is to be found in more than one church in this area and as late as 1920 he designed the war memorial at Shorne. However, in 1911 he and his family were living in Newport, Cardiganshire and from around 1921 to 1939 in Ealing, London, before they moved finally to Merionethshire. Hallward laid great stress on painting all his glass and criticised Whall for his use of assistants, although in the later part of his life he was assisted by his daughter Patience (see this section immediately above), which allowed him to continue working until well past 80 – a window at All Saints, Woodford Green in east London, dates from c1943 when he was 85. He was man of many talents, for in addition to stained glass, he painted and produced inscriptions. As well as these, he designed fittings and decorative schemes for churches and produced books. For a period he had his own press, on top of which he wrote poetry.
Maggi Hambling (b1945) trained in Suffolk and subsequently at Camberwell and the Slade Schools of Art. She was initially best known as a painter, both of portraits (which were shown at the National Portrait Gallery among other places) and of the North Sea, in a series that has increasingly interested her since 2002. She has also produced several striking sculptures, notably the Scallop on the beach at Aldeburgh, Suffolk in memory of Benjamin Britten and the memorial to Oscar Wilde behind St Martin in the Fields, London.
E J Hamilton
Edwin James Hamilton (1852-1946) was born in Islington and was by 1861 living in Brighton, where his father was minister of the London Road Chapel. He was articled to Thomas Simpson of Brighton (1825-1908), a prominent local designer of schools and nonconformist chapels, including the memorable Seven Dials Congregational Church, alas no longer extant, which was in the German romanesque style. Hamilton was in practice on his own account by 1878 (WWA 1914) and in view of his personal and professional backgrounds it is unsurprising that he too designed quite a few nonconformist places of worship. The most prominent one in Brighton was the Salvation Army Hall (1884) in Park Crescent (KD 1890). He also designed a Baptist chapel at Burgess Hill (demolished) and was probably the ‘L J Hamilton’ said to have designed the Congregational church there in 1881 (BE p462). On occasion, he worked outside Sussex, including alterations to a (then) Congregational church in Southend-on-Sea in 1889. WWA lists him in Brighton in 1914, but he does not appear in either later edition, suggesting that he had retired.
Extended: Burgess Hill, – St John (1889 – probably not carried out)
Hampden, 1st Viscount
Robert Hampden Trevor (1706-83) inherited estates in Buckinghamshire and later Glynde Place from his brother, Richard Trevor, Bishop of Durham (1707-71); Glynde Place has remained part of the Hampden estates until the present. Hampden’s main career was political and diplomatic (particularly in the United Provinces (now Netherlands), but he was also an amateur architect of some imagination, though no extant building by him is known.
Designed: Glynde (nd – not carried out).
The identity of this man, who assisted R Wheeler with the reconstruction of Ashington church, cannot be established with certainty. The name is found quite frequently in the north, but not in the south. The only likely person in the records is George Hanby of 9 Elm Grove, Brighton (b1808 at Bolsover, Derbyshire, d1883 in Brighton), who in 1871 and 1881 was described as a retired carpenter and builder. He had had earlier links with the area round Ashington, as shown by the birth of two of his daughters in the 1850s at Wiston, so the identification is plausible.
Reconstructed: Ashington (1872 – assisted in later stages)
Richard Hancock was a freelance artist, who designed at least one window for Heaton, Butler and Bayne (see this section below) (Little etc p62) and exhibited a design at the RA in 1885 (Graves). However, little is known about him, not even his dates, and the only known example of his work is a single signed window of 1917 at Holtye Common. A stained glass painter called Albert Hancock (b1841 at Bath), recorded in St John’s Wood between 1881 and 1901 may be related, though he is not recorded as having a son called Richard.
Glass: Holtye Common
E J Hansom
Edward Joseph Hansom (1842-1900) was articled to his father, Charles Francis Hansom (1817-88), a leading designer of Roman Catholic churches and brother of Joseph Aloysius Hansom (1803-83), inventor of the Hansom cab and also an architect of Roman Catholic churches, including what is now Arundel Cathedral. A Catholic by birth, E J Hansom was educated at Downside (on which he later worked). He was briefly a partner of his father and from 1871-93 of A M Dunn of Newcastle, a pupil of his father. Much of his work is in Newcastle, including schools and the spire of the Roman Catholic cathedral. He committed suicide.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 78 p548
Altered: Chichester, – St Peter-the-Great (1876 and (?)1881)
J T Hanson
John Treadway Hanson (1848-1908) was born in London and in 1862 became a pupil of James Sandby Padley (1792-1881) in Lincoln, where his father, a native of the city, was then working. He went on to work in several offices as an assistant, before going into independent practice in 1868. His only confirmed partner was John Tavener Perry (1841/42-1915) from c1871 to 1873, when, from a Regent’s Park address, Hanson became ARIBA (Proc RIBA); he also had an office in Dover, where much of his work was done. For the projected church at South Lancing he collaborated with W H Romayne-Walker, but does not list it on his admission papers as FRIBA. The only record of a common address for the two was at 5 York Buildings, London in 1880 (KD/L). which was in fact Hanson’ s established office-address. Despite this, Romayne-Walker later claimed sole credit for the design of South Lancing. Hanson died at St Luke’s workhouse in London, a few days after admission. This suggests that he was there for medical reasons as workhouses also served as hospitals for the poor, though that indicates in turn that he was not well off.
Designed: South Lancing (1880 with W H Romayne-Walker – not built)
Lady C Harcourt
Lady Catherine Julia Harcourt (nee Jenkinson (1811-72)) was the daughter of the 5th Earl of Oxford and in 1837 married Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Vernon Venables Harcourt, retired (1801-1880) of Buxted Place, a son of Archbishop Vernon-Harcourt of York (1757-1847). She does not appear to have had any children but did develop artistic interests, though the details of how she acquired these are not known. At High Hurstwood her initial role was that of benefactress, but she had an interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. The latter involved painting at least one window at Buxted and may have extended to designing it as well.
Glass: Buxted, – St Margaret;
Painted decoration: High Hurstwood
Charles Hardgrave (1848-1920) at the age of 13 gave his occupation as glass stainer in 1861, when still living with his parents in York, his birthplace. However, no further details about his training are known, though there were several glass-makers in the city. In 1867 he was the recipient of a scholarship at the National School of Design (now the Royal College of Art) after which he joined the firm of J Powell and Sons as a designer, either in 1871 or 1874. His early works were mostly mosaics. though he also designed stained glass. He worked very much in the aesthetic idiom for which the firm’s then chief designer H Holiday (see below) was noted, but continued with the firm after Holiday’s departure in 1892 ; though he claimed to be working from home in 1911, suggesting he was no longer working directly for them.
Glass: Bexhill, – St Peter; Bognor, – St Mary Magdalene, South Bersted; Eastbourne, – All Souls (probably destroyed); Felpham (destroyed); Findon; Hastings, – All Souls (designed); Hunston; Lewes, – St Anne; Lewes, St John the Baptist, Southover (attr); North Mundham; Sompting; Stedham
Mosaics etc: Withyham, St Michael, reredos
J Hardman and Co
The business of John Hardman and Co emerged from a prosperous firm of button-makers in Handsworth, Birmingham, owned by John Hardman senior (1767-1844). The change was mainly due to his son, also John (1811-67) and followed his meeting A W N Pugin (AP), who was active in the area in the late 1830s, mainly in connection with the planned new cathedral of St Chad, to which John Hardman senior, a Roman Catholic like Pugin, was a generous benefactor. Pugin persuaded the company to diversify into ecclesiastical metalwork of various kinds, including silver plate. This cannot have been too difficult, since John junior shared many of his enthusiasms. The firm expanded into all kinds of church fittings in the 1840s with Pugin acting as chief designer. After the firm this moved to premises separate from the button-making business in 1845, it started to make stained glass, again at Pugin’s instigation, and this came to dominate the business. Pugin was the designer at the start, though this was not without problems as he worked in Ramsgate. Kent and the windows were manufactured in Birmingham. Although its prices were high, the company was quickly successful and its work is in the Palace of Westminster as well as being exhibited at the Great Exhibition in 1851. Like Pugin, John Hardman junior wore himself out at an early age and retired to Bristol in 1857. Meanwhile, Pugin had been replaced as designer by Hardman’s nephew, J H Powell (JHP) whom he had trained and who in turn trained a new generation of craftsmen and designers. Pugin would not have liked much of the company’s glass at this time, which was in a more pictorial style, leading to a break with Butterfield, for whom the firm had worked. Other architects like R C Carpenter, Sir George G Scott, G E Street and B Ferrey were among its customers and it became one of the most prolific suppliers of stained glass in the late C19 – the Index of commissions started in 1866 contained over 1800 entries by 1900, though in many cases the name of the designer is unrecorded. In the late C19 D J Powell (DP), J H Powell’s son, was the chief designer. By 1919 the glass-making and decorative side of the business was constituted separately, with D Taunton (DT) closely involved by 1928. He was chief designer from 1935 to 1964 and largely ran the firm for most of that time, during which it continued to be chiefly concerned with work for Roman Catholic churches and was often known as John Hardman Studios. The firm passed into the same ownership as Goddard and Gibbs, though they worked from different premises in west Birmingham. During this period its products ranged more widely among the decorative arts, but Hardman’s ceased trading in 2008, though Goddard and Gibbs did not.
Lit: M Fisher: Hardman of Birmingham – Goldsmith and Glasspainter, 2008; DNB entry for Hardman family
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Paul, lectern (JHP); Hastings – Christ Church, Blacklands, Chancel fittings and decoration (DP)
Glass: Aldwick (DT); Ardingly; Arundel (church and Fitzalan chapel); Balcombe; Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Church Road, Hove; – St Andrew, Waterloo Street, Hove; – St Helen, Hangleton; – St Paul (AP); – Holy Trinity, Blatchington Road, Hove; Bury; Chichester, – All Saints, Portfield; Coldwaltham; Cowfold; Crawley, – St John the Baptist; Cuckfield; Ditchling; Eartham; East Grinstead, – St Swithun; East Preston; Ferring: Findon; Hastings, – Christ Church, Blacklands; – Christ Church, London Road; – Emmanuel (DT); Hurstpierpoint; Keymer; Kingston Buci; Lowfield Heath; Nutley; Offham; Old Shoreham; Patching; Plumpton Green; Rudgwick; Salehurst; Slinfold; Staplefield (AP – gone – and later work); Steyning; Storrington; Stoughton; Terwick; Wadhurst; Wartling (DT); Washington; West Chiltington; West Lavington; West Wittering; Withyham, – St Michael; Worth
Heywood Hardy (1842-1933), born in Chichester, trained in Bristol since his father, a teacher of drawing, was working at Bathwick in the eastern part of the city. After study in Paris, he settled at Goring, Oxfordshire and in 1870 moved to London, where he specialised in animal and sporting paintings and genre scenes. In 1891 and 1901 he also called himself a sculptor but continued to paint. He lived at East Preston after 1909, though his presence as a visitor in the household of the Master of the Quorn Hounds in 1911 suggests his interest in hunting may have been more than professional. He is buried at Climping.
Lit: B Stewart and M Cutten: Heywood Hardy, 1987
James Hardy (b c1652) originated in Northumberland, but was apprenticed in London from 1669-76 and became a leading master mason there. Around 1717 his yard was in Piccadilly, but after this time there is no further record of him, though he had a grandson of the same name.
Memorials: Folkington (attr); Horsham, – St Mary; Ringmer (attr)
Cecil Greenwood Hare (1875-1932) is described in G F Bodley’s will as his secretary and received a legacy of £400. However, he is known to have undertaken more than one major project with Bodley and according to his brief obituary in The Times he was a partner. Michael Hall (p418) states he attained this position a few months before Bodley’s death in 1907, but there is some doubt as to how far the arrangement was a formal one, although Bodley, then in his late 70s, relied upon him greatly and Hare certainly took over the practice after Bodley died, completing some of his designs. References to Bodley and Hare are found before 1907, although the earliest reference as such in KD/L was not until 1917. Hare came from Stamford, Lincolnshire and started his long association with Bodley when he was living at Deene, Northamptonshire at a time when Bodley was working on the church there. He was first a pupil and then an assistant, until in 1901 he became manager of the office. After he took over, his professional address was 11 Gray’s Inn Square, WC1. Most of Hare’s own church work consisted of fittings, reflecting the downturn in the building of new churches from the early C20. He was partner of A V Heal (another Bodley pupil – see this section below) from 1919 to 1924, at a time when Heal (still calling his practice Creed and Heal) and Bodley and Hare were both to be found at 11 Gray’s Inn Square, where they remained until 1931.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Times 20 July 1932
Restored and altered: Brede (1928); Hastings, – Christ Church, London Road (1926-27 – doubtful)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael, altarpiece; Danehill – war memorial; Hastings, – Christ Church, London Road, wall painting etc
Isaac Hargraves (also known as Hardgraves) was a mason in Lewes, whom Gunnis (p188) found in the records only between 1792 and 1796. However, Poll Books for the town include an Isaac Hargraves, variously described as a mason or stone mason between 1790 and 1812 and one for the county of 1820, though not giving any occupation, lists someone of the name in Southover, Lewes. These probably all refer to the man identified by Gunnis, in which case the memorial by him at Horsted Keynes of 1816 presents no problem in terms of dating. He does not appear in Lewes parish records of the period and is not listed at all by Roscoe, despite his signature on the memorial at Stanmer.
Memorial: Horsted Keynes; Stanmer
There are two candidates for the Herstmonceux builder who worked on Penhurst church in 1881 in the census of that year. First, George Harmer (1829/30-91), a monumental mason, employing 8 men and also said to be a builder and surveyor (KD). His father had been a bricklayer as was he for a time. In 1891 he was living off his own means and sufficiently respectable for the curate of the parish to be a lodger. Alternatively, his son George Edward (1852-83) was also a mason in the village, but less is known about him and he died young. Other Harmers were builders and bricklayers in the C19 in the area.
Restored: Penhurst (1881)
Jonathan Harmer junior (1762-1849) was the son of a stonemason and bricklayer of Heathfield of the same name. He was a radical and republican, who moved to New York from 1796 to 1800 before returning to take over his father’s business. He signs a few stone memorials, but his speciality was terracotta, made from clay thought to have been dug in Heathfield Park. In addition to conventional architectural ornament, this work included decorative reliefs placed on tombstones, which are found in various East Sussex churchyards. At Wartling the relief was cast in iron. He was also a surveyor of roads.
Lit: G L Remnant: Jonathan Harmer’s Terracottas, SAC 100 (1962) pp142-48 and SAC 102 (1964) pp52-54
Memorials: Ashburnham (?); Brightling; Burwash; Chiddingly; East Grinstead (conventional); East Hoathly; Framfield; Glynde; Hailsham; Hastings, – All Saints; Heathfield; Hellingly; Herstmonceux; Mayfield; Mountfield; Salehurst; Wadhurst (also conventional one); Waldron; Warbleton; Wartling (iron, stolen).
Charles Harris (d1795) came from Gloucestershire and in 1776 he was in partnership with Richard Parker in the Strand in London and in Bath. At Hungerford, Berkshire there is a monument signed only by him and dated 1779 and it is fairly certain that by 1781 he was working on his own. He produced a wide range of goods, including some fine monuments in the style of Robert Adam.
George Harrison was described as a surveyor, when in 1837 he carried out a re-seating of Angmering church (which was removed within 15 years). He is not otherwise on record.
Hugh Harrison (b1942/43) worked for the long-established company of H Read Ltd of Exeter and headed it from 1972 to 1995. During this time its renown in the field of woodwork, both structural and artistic continued but it also worked with stonework and mosaics. Since leaving H Read he has continued to live and work in Devon, though he now specialises in woodwork.
Conservation: Cuckfield, roof
J P Harrison
JJames Park Harrison (1817-1902) was born in Bloomsbury and studied at Christ Church,Oxford and then Lincoln’s Inn, though he did little in the field of law. He was associated with the Oxford Movement and in particular with John Keble, for whom he designed a church at Hursley, Hampshire in 1846-48; unsurprisingly, the Ecclesiological Society approved of him. He was widely active during the 1840s, but by 1851, living near Dorking, he preferred to call himself an annuitant and MA of Oxford. In fact he remained active as an architect and though he had scaled down his activities in the field by the mid-1850s, there is a church by him at Netley Marsh designed in 1855 and a school at Ecchinswell, both in Hampshire, dating from as late as 1861. He devoted the rest of his life to archaeological and ethnographic studies of the most varied kinds. As a widower he lived in a succession of lodgings until taken in by his son, a retired naval officer, in Sydenham, where he is to be found in 1901.
Designed: Southwater (1848-50)
Restored: East Lavington (1846-47); Rudgwick (1843-47)
W H Harroway
William Henry Harroway (1832-1902), was born in Marylebone, but spent much of his life in what was then outer West London, including the Kilburn area. However, he can be identified with a surveyor of the name who occurs in 1861 at 4 Queen Street, Marylebone and who was living in Paddington as an architectural draughtsman ten years later (as ‘Harraway’). He appears to have joined A Salvin’s office some time in the 1850s and later became principal clerk. In Salvin’s last years he largely ran the practice and after his death completed his outstanding commissions. By 1881 he was back in west London at 33 Victoria Road, Willesden and in 1891 he was at 9 Manchester Street there, calling himself an architect
Completed restoration: Fernhurst (1881-82)
Harry the Glasyer
Gill Draper has identified Harry the glasyer (recorded 1520-63) from churchwardens’ and other records as a glazier in Rye. He was of French origin, though he pre-dates the influx of protestant foreigners into the town after the start of the Reformation in earnest. No glass by him there is known today,but he installed some heraldic glass in his parish church in 1562, The fullest record of him covers a long period from 1520-59 and concerns repairs to (and removal of) glass at Lydd church in Kent, not far away. He is also recorded in connection with the removal and replacement of glass at Hawkhurst and Smarden churches, also in western Kent. Gill Draper suggests he could have been involved in the repair of surviving stained glass in churches like Etchingham and Ticehurst. Harry made his will in February 1563 and may be presumed to have died shortly thereafter.
Glass: Rye (lost)
Lit: G Draper: Harry the Glasyer of Rye: Making and Replacing Stained Glass in Churches on the Kent and Sussex Borders in the Sixteenth Century, Vidimus 65 (January 2013).
J A Hatchard
The Rev John Alton Hatchard (1815-95) was born in Shropshire, the son of a clergyman and grandson of the founder of Hatchard’s bookshop in Piccadilly. He was ordained in 1841 and after a succession of short-lived positions, including that of naval chaplain and curate of Pett, his final one was perpetual curate of St Leonards from 1854-56. In 1847 he had married a wealthy widow and was thus able to spend the rest of his life in some comfort – in 1881 he and his wife had six resident servants. Both before and after his withdrawal from the ordained ministry, he designed some remarkable woodwork, though it is not known how he learned his skills. The fittings at Whatlington are certainly by him and the closely related pulpit at Slinfold (1861), attributed to the ‘Rev T A Hatchard’, said to be curate of St Leonards, is clearly also his work. Records show that he was the owner of several properties in that town.
Fittings: Slinfold, pulpit (as ‘T A Hatchard’); Whatlington, pulpit and lectern
John Haviland (1792-1852) was born in Somerset and at the age of 19 became a pupil of J Elmes, who entrusted the completion of St John, Chichester to him because of illness. In 1816 he moved to Philadelphia, USA and became one of the leading architects in the city, designing churches, halls and other public buildings. Some of these still stand and in addition he wrote one of the earliest architectural pattern books in the USA. He became particularly known for his designs for prisons, but his later days were affected by unwise speculations which led to bankruptcy. He kept links with the architectural profession in Britain and was elected an honorary member of the RIBA in 1846 (Proc RIBA).
Completed: Chichester, – St John (c1813)
M R Hawkins
Major Rohde (often found as Rhode) Hawkins (1821-84) was never an officer as ‘Major’ was a name. His often misspelled second name was his mother’s maiden name (Father’s entry in DNB). He was a pupil of T Cubitt and worked in the office of E Blore, before travelling in the Middle East, studying antiquities – his father was Keeper of Antiquities at the British Museum. On return he started in practice, designing schools and churches, which were mostly small and utilitarian, though using the gothic style. For 30 years from 1854 his main position was as architect to the Education Department of the Privy Council, though he continued in private practice.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 47 pp752-53
Designed: Bodle Street Green (1853 – rebuilt); Fairwarp (1877-81 – subsequently enlarged)
A S Haynes
Arthur Sidney Haynes (1860-1931) was an artist rather than a carver by training, who in 1901 lived with his widowed mother in Hampstead, where he was born. In 1906 he married and before 1911 he had moved to Hindover by Alfriston, where there is a memorial window to him in the church. However, he moved once again and was living at Northiam at his death. He painted landscapes in a conventional idiom, including the Sussex Downs.
Fitting: Northiam, font
G Haynes G H Haynes
Geoffrey Haynes is said to have been an unspecified local government employee who was living at East Blatchington when he produced a design for a new church at Peacehaven about 1952. This was disallowed by the bishop on the advice of J L Denman. The source is Denman’s unpublished memoirs and it is possible that he was being disingenuous for there is only one Geoffrey H Haynes in directories for East Blatchington between 1951 and 1959, who was an architect and had in 1951 produced a design for extending the vestry of the parish church there; he must surely be the same. Further references after a move to Eastbourne in the latter year reveal he was an ARIBA and thus highly qualified as an architect. He continues to appear in Eastbourne directories until 1971 but the dates of his birth and death remain elusive.
Designed: Peacehaven (c1952 – unbuilt)
Extended: East Blatchington (1951, vestry, possibly not carried out)
John David Hayward (1929-2007) studied as a painter and then took up stained glass, studying under F H Spear and at St Martin’s School of Art. He had some involvement with Faith Craft from 1951 when it was at 7 Tufton Street, Westminster. In particular he knew F Stephens, the chief designer, and probably also T D Randall, who was an employee. Hayward continued this association for some time (according to James Bettley until 1961), though he was also making other designers’ glass outside the confines of Faith Craft, e g a window to Stephens’s design at Shoreham, Kent in 1953. However, his best known glass, at St Mary-le-Bow in the City, dates from 1963-64, after he had ceased this involvement; windows by him are in several other City churches rebuilt at this time as well. Hayward’s own studio was initially at Bletchingley, Surrey and then at West Hoathly from 1973-76, before he moved to Kent and then Dorset, where he settled in 1989. Until he decided in 1974 to concentrate on glass, Hayward designed other fittings – even in his early years he had made furniture and metalwork for a number of churches, including the crucifix at St Mary-le-Bow. He acknowledged his debt to French artists such as Seurat and Braque, as well as to Orthodox icons. He worked with M Noble as a designer.
Obits: Church Times 10 Aug 2007; JSG 31 (2007) pp192-95
Glass: Balcombe; Haywards Heath, – St Richard; Singleton
A V Heal
Albert Victor Heal (1887-1972) was a pupil of G F Bodley and of C Hare (see this section above), before moving in 1913 to the office of R T Creed, whose practice in Gray’s Inn he took over in 1914 without changing the name after Creed’s death. This remained the case after distinguished war service, when he became Hare’s partner between 1919 and 1924. In the latter year Creed and Heal were sharing an address with Bodley and Hare at 11 Gray’s Inn Square (KD/L) and both practices continued at the same address until 1931, the year of Hare’s death. After this Heal went into partnership with Reginald Victor Smith (1886-1968(?)). Heal restored Parham Park intermittently from the 1920s for over 40 years and in London worked extensively for the Bank of England, for whom his most considerable work, the neo-Georgian New Change Buildings (finished in 1960), was demolished in 2007. Both the Sussex churches on which he worked were closely linked to the Parham estate.
Restored: Parham (1933-34); Wiggonholt (1952)
Ernest Heasman (1874-1927) was born, the son of a cobbler, in Lindfield, where he came to the notice of C E Kempe, who owned a house in the parish, on account of his skilled draughtsmanship. He joined Kempe’s studio and won a scholarship to the Slade School. He continued in Kempe’s employment until 1902, when he moved to work with his fellow-pupil, H W Bryans and also with G Webb, both of which working relationships continued until around 1921. Whilst with Bryans, they shared a common mark, a greyhound and all three continued to produce some work independently. In general, it is often hard to tell Heasman’s and Bryan’s work apart, to say nothing of distinguishing it from Kempe’s, except by means of the latter’s different differing signatures. Since each continued to work alone on occasion, it is also unclear how far the three were bound by any formal commitment and they never appear as a partnership in directories like KD/L. It is, however, certain that after his association with Bryans and Webb ended, Heasman lived and worked on his own in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, producing both glass and some tiles. During this time he did some work for J Wippell and Co.
Heaton, Butler and Bayne Heaton and Co Heaton and Butler Butler and Bayne
Clement Heaton (1824-82), the son of a Methodist minister in Bradford on Avon, was in 1851 a glass painter working for William Holland of Warwick (1809-83) and his age of 27 suggests his initial training was complete. By 1853 he was in London and after a brief period in business alone, went into partnership with James Butler (1830-1913) in 1855, though Heaton retained a separate entry in KD/L as late as 1857. The two first met in Holland’s workshops where Butler had also worked, as he too came from Warwick, the son of a publican. The first address of the two was 236 Marylebone Road, but they already had links with Clayton and Bell and from 1857 shared premises with them. This association had lasting consequences, as they were brought into contact with the future third member of the firm, Robert Turnill Bayne (1837-1915) who was employed by Clayton and Bell and whose early work unsurprisingly shows Clayton’s influence. The details of his previous training are uncertain but Walters calls him the most talented of their pupils (Angels and Icons p173). He was also from Warwick and joined them as chief designer in 1862, since both Heaton and Butler were stronger on the technical side. For a few years from 1864 much design work was in the hands of Alfred Hassam (1843-69), much of whose works resembles Bayne’s, for both show a remarkable feeling for colour. However, it was Bayne’s advent that first brought the firm to widespread attention; in particular his handling of large-scale designs was admired. Most of the firm’s earlier glass had been gothic in style, but under Bayne it was open to newer influences, notably that of D G Rossetti and after 1865 the company also commissioned designs from H Holiday (see this section below). Following the early death of Hassam the firm’s style underwent considerable change during the 1870s as new and only in part identified artists were used. This change and the company’s modest output by comparison with J Powell and Sons, Lavers and Barraud and Clayton and Bell, combined with Bayne’s continuing high commitment, allowed the firm to retain its artistic integrity. It was used widely by Sir A W Blomfield, but an increasing amount of its output was secular in nature, thus strengthening an aspect of its production that went back to its earlier years. Heaton’s son Clement John (1861-1940 – CJH) joined for a short time, but fell out with his partners and left in 1886, spending much of his later life in Switzerland and the USA. The firm continued until 1953 under descendants of other partners, after which most of its archives were destroyed for lack of interest. It also produced schemes of decoration and fittings, primarily reredoses.
Lit: S B M Bayne: Heaton, Butler and Bayne, Lausanne, 1986
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – Chapel Royal, decoration; Coolhurst, memorial by C J Heaton; Keymer, decoration; Warbleton, reredos; Warnham, reredos; Washington, decoration (as Heaton and Butler)
Glass: Arundel; Barcombe; Bexhill, – St Barnabas; – St Peter; Bramber (attr); Brede; Brighton and Hove, – Annunciation; – St Mark (as Butler and Bayne); Burwash (attr); Buxted, – St Margaret; Chailey, – St Peter; Chichester, – St George; Coolhurst; Crowhurst; Easebourne; Eastbourne, – All Souls; – St Mary; – Holy Trinity; Eastergate; East Marden; Ebernoe; Edburton (attr – doubtful); Egdean; Felpham; Friston; Hastings, – All Saints; – All Souls; – Christ Church, London Road; – Christ Church, Ore; – Emmanuel; – St Ethelburga, St Leonards; – St John, Hollington; – St Leonard, Hollington; – St Mary in the Castle; – St Mary Magdalene; – St Matthew; Heathfield; Holtye Common (attr); Horsham, – St Mary; Hurstpierpoint, – Holy Trinity; Kingston Buci; Lancing, – St James (attr); Laughton; Lewes, – St Thomas; Lowfield Heath; Lyminster; Merston; New Shoreham; Ninfield; Pagham; Patcham; Petworth; Portslade by Sea, – St Andrew; Pulborough; Ringmer; Rusper; Rye; Seaford; Selsey, – St Wilfrid; Southbourne; Southwick; Thakeham; Ticehurst (doubtful); Tillington; Turners Hill; Warnham; West Stoke; Westbourne; Westham; Wisborough Green (attr); Worthing, – Christ Church
Also Washington (as Heaton and Butler)
Memorial: Coolhurst (CJH)
In addition, a company catalogue dated 1932, which forms the basis of S B M Bayne’s list of 1986, records further glass by the company, for which no dates or descriptions could then be found. Later research has located glass by the company in many of the churches in question which is likely to be that mentioned in 1932. Though most of the glass seems now to have been identified, the churches concerned are listed below for the sake of completeness:
Bexhill – St Peter (probably the glass by the firm noted above); Brighton and Hove, – St Matthias; Coolhurst (probably some of the glass by the firm noted above); Hastings, – St John, Hollington (probably the glass by the firm noted above); Pett (probably the glass by the firm noted above); Tillington (probably the glass by the firm noted above); Wisborough Green (probably the glass attributed to the firm noted above)
G C Hedgeland
George Caleb Hedgeland (1826-98) was the son of John Pike Hedgeland (1791-1873), an architect who had an interest in mediaeval stained glass which he restored. He was admired for his work in this field by the C19 pioneer of the study and manufacture of stained glass, Charles Winston. J P Hedgeland also designed glass and it seems likely that he was at least partially involved in the training of his son. By about 1852 (the date of a window at Gayton, Norfolk), G C Hedgeland was in business on his own account with a stained glass studio in Lisson Grove, London (KD). His work was in what already seemed a rather old fashioned pictorial manner that Hedgeland frequently derived from old masters, notably Raphael, and it can have won him few admirers among the Ecclesiologists. Nevertheless, his glass was installed in a number of major cathedrals including Norwich and Ely. His career in England was short, for in 1860 he emigrated to Australia for the sake of his health. The move was clearly beneficial for he lived another 38 years and married there, but he appears to have abandoned stained glass since a man of the same name, which is so unusual that it can hardly be anyone else, was appointed as a surveyor of lands for the New South Wales government in 1871. He appears regularly in government lists until 1888 when he received a gratuity of £465, presumably on retirement or resignation. In support of a change in occupation is the fact that no example of his glass is recorded in Australia.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St John the Baptist, Palmeira Square
A O Hemming Hemming and Co
Alfred Octavius Hemming (1843-1907) was born in Bristol, the son of an army officer. He trained as an architect in Edinburgh before becoming a pupil of Clayton and Bell in 1868. His professional advancement was slow by the standards of the era, for the first certain reference to a studio of his own in Margaret Street, London does not come until 1883, when he was already 40. He lived for much of his life in Hampstead and in 1906 he moved his office to 2 Nottingham Terrace, Marylebone Road (KD/L) only a year before his death at Watford. The company continued thereafter as A O Hemming and Co and it is likely that it was run initially by Hemming’s former partner, C Corbould about relatively little is known for certain. It seems most likely that he was Alfred Chantrey Corbould (1853-1920), described in 1881 and 1911 as an artist, but in 1904 one R Corbould of the company was involved in decorating the now demolished church of St George, Vancouver Road, Catford (South London), in collaboration with the firm of P Bacon, including also some stained glass. R Corbould is probably the R H Corbould known to have carried out some work for the company at Earl’s Colne church, Essex in 1911, but the relationship with any C Corbould remains obscure. A C Corbould had a short lived younger brother, Charles Rosslyn Corbould (1868-1887) but his dates rule him out. The firm produced much less during this later period, though there are examples of both glass and painting. It continued at the same London address until 1940, and then appears for one year only at 3 George Street, W1 but is not found after 1941 (ibid). Hemming himself is best known as a designer of glass in a generally conservative idiom, but he was also a painter and produced fittings and entire decorative schemes for churches, though none of the latter is in Sussex.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Mary; East Grinstead, – St Swithun; Hartfield; Harting; Linchmere (Hemming and Co); Lowfield Heath; Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene
Fitting: Worthing, – St Andrew, Stations of the Cross.
Harry Hems (1842-1916) was born in Islington but was of Yorkshire ancestry and worked initially as a cutler in Sheffield, before being indentured as a woodcarver there. After this he was employed in various places for two years before going to Tuscany where he worked both in Florence and Carrara. On return in 1866 he went to Exeter with the intention of working on the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, then under construction. On arrival he is said to have found a horse shoe outside the station. He prospered in the city and soon acquired a high reputation, undertaking work for such architects as J L Pearson and Sir George G Scott. By 1881 he was employing 23 men and seven boys and in the same year he started to build his own works which, recalling his early find, he named ‘Ye Luckie Horse Shoe Studio’, with the horse shoe mounted on the wall (it is still there). The architect was the respected local Robert Medley Fulford (1845-1910) and the building, which still exists as a restaurant and offices, is in an appropriately ecclesiastical style. There he continued his extensive practice as a stone and wood carver at home and abroad, both to his own design and that of others. He travelled and wrote extensively and was a benefactor in his adopted city. He undertook much restoration of church woodwork, especially in Devon, and in the course of this acquired a fine collection of mediaeval work, now in the Museum in Exeter on which he had worked. Despite increasing competition from other firms such as H Read the company, renamed H Hems and Sons did not close until 1938.
Obit: Building News 110 (1916) p55
Fittings: Ardingly, pulpit; Bexhill – St Peter, screen and choir stalls; Brighton and Hove – St John, Preston, reredos; Hastings, – St Peter, Bohemia Road, reredos and screens; Lewes – St Thomas, reredos (gone?); Rye, reredos; Sompting, reredos; Worthing, – St Andrew, architectural carving and numerous fittings; – Christ Church, altar (gone)
Herbert Hendrie (1887-1946) was born in Manchester and trained as a painter in London at the Slade School and the Royal College of Art. Turning to stained glass, he trained further under C Whall and more particularly Karl Parsons (1884-1934). He was active independently by 1918 and in the 1920s his glass was made at the Glass House, before he moved to Scotland where from 1923 he taught at Edinburgh College of Art. Much of his later glass is in consequence to be found in Scotland or the north of England, in particular at Liverpool cathedral though it is also to be found in English parish churches more widely. His early work shows pre-Raphaelite influence but in the 1920s he moved to a more expressive and less flowing idiom.
J P Henly
John Peckham Henly (1778/79-1861) signs himself as a surveyor in connection with his work at St Paul, Worthing, but his later career suggests that he was primarily a carpenter. In 1832 PD lists him with an address in Littlehampton as well and by 1839 (PD) he is at listed as a timber merchant of Tarrant Street, Arundel, where he was born. In 1851 he was a builder/master employing three carpenters and in 1861 called himself a builder shortly before his death in Worthing. The firm continued after his death and in the 1860s and 1870s was mainly involved in trading coal and lime. Subsequently, under his son Charles Henly, it became exclusively coal merchants (VCH 5(1) p70). Edward Henly, carpenter and builder of Arundel in 1840 (PD ibid) is probably connected.
Rebuilt: Loxwood (1822 – dem); Worthing, – St Paul (1819 – wrongly listed as Christ Church, Worthing)
S T Hennell
Sidney Thorn Hennell (1881-1959) was born in Wandsworth and became a pupil of Edward William Mountford (1855-1908). After Hennell went into practice he had an office at 329, High Holborn (KD/L) until 1915, when he moved to 97 Jermyn Street, London (WWA 1923). In that year there is a reference (KD/L) to a practice called Hennell and James at 19 Russell Square (KD/L) and the same practice designed some houses in Hampstead Garden Suburb, probaby in the mid to late 1920s. However, it would appear that this refers to a different Hennell. Sidney Hennell was certainly present in Bognor by 1927 (KD/S) and some of the schools, factories and houses that he designed are in West Sussex. At some point after this move, he probably became associated with the practice of Hennell, Gammens and Thatcher, which is to be found at Worthing in 1938 (ibid). The list of works in his application to become FRIBA in 1925 omits Durrington or any other church.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Holy Cross, Woodingdean (1941 – rebuilt);Worthing, – St Symphorian, Durrington (1914-15 – as ‘S T Kennell’ – an obvious misreading and in any case doubtful)
Repaired: Bognor Regis, – Holy Cross, North Bersted (1950-51 – probably not carried out)
My thanks to Professor Stefan Buczacki for telling me of the existence of two Hennells.
Henry of Blois
Henry of Blois (c1096-1171), though himself neither an artist or architect, played a highly influential part in the arts of his age by virtue of his position. He was the brother of the future King Stephen and was destined like so many younger sons for the church. He became a Cluniac monk, which brought him into contact with Lewes priory, and came to the attention of Henry I, under whom in quick succession he was appointed Abbot of Glastonbury and Bishop of Winchester. He played a frequently ambivalent role during Stephen’s reign, but enjoyed the confidence of Henry II and thus kept both his major offices until his death. He was closely associated with major building projects in both places and the masons associated with this work were widely employed elsewhere. Several fittings made of black marble from Tournai in present-day Belgium are closely linked to him, including examples in Sussex.
Associated masons: Old Shoreham; Steyning
Tournai marble work: Lewes, – St John the Baptist, Southover; Rodmell
Frederick Charles Herrick (1887-1970) studied at Leicester School of Art and the Royal College of Art. He became well known as a graphic artist, especially for his posters, including many for the London Underground. Among his contemporaries his lion emblem for the 1924 British Empire exhibition at Wembley became his most familiar work. At a later date he taught at the Brighton School of Art, where he was particularly prominent in the field of mural painting.
Painting: Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Moulsecoomb
Philippa (‘Pippa’) M Heskett, who has been known as Blackall since her marriage in 1984, had become a designer of stained glass by 1972, the date of her earliest recorded glass. At that time she was living in the village of Shimpling, Suffolk and much of her work is to be found in that county.
L K Hett
Leonard Keir Hett (1887-1978) was born at Ewell, Surrey. He was articled to Francis William Troup (1859-1941) and trained at the Architectural Association, before going into practice in 1911 with ‘Carus Wilson’, designing mainly cottages and larger houses; the latter was probably Charles Denny Carus-Wilson (1886-1979) a near contemporary who had also studied at the Architectural Association and was working in London at the time, before he moved to Sheffield and then Edinburgh. After World War I, Hett reappears in 1921 on his own at 34 Paternoster Row, EC4 (KD/L), but in 1923 he joined the practice of Searle and Searle of London EC4, with which he was associated for the rest of his career. He worked extensively in Sussex where, in addition to churches, he designed many houses and was for 18 years architect to Ardingly College. His ashes were buried in Ardingly churchyard.
Obit: RIBAJ 87 (June 1980) p17
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Christ the King, South Patcham (1958); – St Andrew, Moulsecoomb (1932-34); Camber (1955-56); Findon Valley (1956); Haywards Heath, – St Richard (1937-38); Peacehaven (1954-55); Portslade, – St Peter, Fishersgate (1938)
Fittings: Ardingly, reredos (1913); Lindfield, south chapel fittings (1946-47).
The reference of 1877 at Horsham, St Mary to a ‘Mr Hicks of Dorchester’ may be to the Dorchester architect of that name, John Hicks (1815-69). Hicks was the son of a rector in Gloucestershire and began his career in Bristol. A church at Horfield, on the outskirts of that city, was apparently rebuilt by him in 1831 (BE Somerset North and Bristol p382) but as he would only have been 16 at the time, his part is likely to have been subordinate at best. More certainly, in 1841 he was living in Clifton, where he designed a church in 1845. In 1852 he designed a school in Monkland, Herefordshire, but by the end of that year he is to found at Dorchester. Within a few years he was established as a prolific church architect in Dorset, though if the attribution is correct, the work at Horsham was posthumous. He died died childless so the work cannot be by another member of the family, but the practice remained in existence under George Rackstraw Crickmay (1830-1907), so conceivably the former name was revived on occasion. Thomas Hardy, who was articled to Hicks and later worked in his office, retained positive memories of his time there – as late as 1911 he recalled him in a poem ‘The Abbey Mason’.
Fitting: Horsham, – St Mary, pulpit
Charles Hide or Hyde (1809/10-76) was baptised at Broadwater church in February 1810. He was for 30 years Town Surveyor of Worthing and in 1871 he was also High Bailiff of the County Court. He trained as a civil engineer but it is doubtful how far he had any formal training as an architect, even though he is said to have been a pupil of J B Rebecca. He became senior partner in Hide and Patching, builders and auctioneers and designed houses in the town. His plans for restoring Sompting led to vociferous protests and R C Carpenter replaced him. He was the son of E Hide (see immediately below) who was living with him in 1841 and 1851, and was also connected with Michael (KD/S 1855) and William Hide of Goring, (KPOD/S 1874), both builders. Many later members of the family followed his rather inconsistent example and spelled the name ‘Hyde’.
Restored: Broadwater (1855 (probably) and 1862-66); Sompting (1853 – unexecuted)
Edward Hide (1771-1858) was a builder and surveyor of Worthing and father of Charles Hide (see immediately above). He was the earliest known in a long line of Hides (later Hydes – for more of the latter see the end of this section), who were all builders and architects in and around Worthing and continued into the 1930s. He himself was born and baptised in Broadwater, though he is not mentioned in the Universal British Directory of 1793, probably as he would have been too young to have his own business.
Altered: Broadwater (1826); Sompting (1828); Worthing, – St Paul (1812 – probably)
John Hill (1847-after 1911) was born in Brighton and in the 1870s was an architect of 11 York Place and later 19 Prince Albert Street in the town, where he designed domestic and commercial buildings. In 1873 he suffered the indignity of a fine of 40 shillings after a building he designed in Brighton collapsed whilst under construction (B 31 p610). After 1875 he moved his private residence to 6 York Road, Hove, where he was still living in 1881, but by 1891, now married to a much younger wife, he had moved again to Islington. He does not appear in the 1901 census, but in 1911 he was living in West Byfleet, Surrey, still described as an architect. In view of the large number of John Hills, it is impossible to determine the date of his death.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Luke Prestonville (1872-75)
G M Hills
Gordon Macdonald Hills (1826-95) was born at Pegwell Bay in Kent, but mainly raised at Lancing. He failed to get into the Marines and turned instead to architecture; after articles with an unnamed firm of Southampton architects, he worked in the office of J Butler in Chichester and from 1850 in that of R C Carpenter, at a time when the two older architects were linked professionally. From 1854 Hills had his own practice, but continued to work with W Slater, Carpenter’s successor. Thus, in 1861 he was closely involved in Slater’s vain efforts to shore up the tower of Chichester cathedral and later succeeded him as surveyor. He was Chichester Diocesan Surveyor and also surveyor to the dioceses of London, Rochester and St Albans. His London office was at 12 John Street, Adelphi, and he lived in Redcliffe Gardens, Kensington. He restored over 70 churches throughout England, of which over 30 were said to be in Sussex. In later life he was joined in practice by his son, Gordon P G Hills, most of whose work is to be found north and west of London for he lived in Cookham, Berkshire. As a restorer, the father could be heavy handed, particularly if the budget was generous. He also designed schools and vicarages and a few new churches. Colgate, the only one in Sussex, has an unusual plan.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 68 (1895) p302, RIBAJ 2 pp452-53
Designed: Colgate (1871)
Restored/reconstructed: Amberley (1864-65); Ashurst (1876-77); Birdham (1863 and 1882-83); Chichester, – St Mary Rumboldswyke (1866-67); – St Pancras (1868); – St Paul (1863 and 1884); Climping (1874-75); Eastdean (E) (1881); East Lavant (1863); Eastergate (1883); Felpham (1883-84); Houghton (1856-57); Lyminster (1883-84); Mid Lavant (nd – doubtful); Ovingdean (1865-67); Poling (1875); Pulborough (1858-59); Slinfold (1856 – not carried out); Steyning (1864-69); Thakeham (1893); Washington (1867); West Firle (1867); West Itchenor (1869-70); Westhampnett (1867); Wiston (1862)
John Hinchliffe (the name also occurs without the final -e) belonged to a large family of statuaries and masons. Exact dates have not survived, but he was apprenticed to his father in 1774 (suggesting he was born around 1759/60) and the last certain record of him is around 1804, though one ‘John Hinchcliff’ was responsible for a monument at Great Holland, Essex which is dated 1821. That would be chronologically possible, though it could equally be the work of J E Hinchcliffe (see immediately below).
J E Hinchcliffe
John Ely Hinchliffe (also found without the final -e) (1777-1867) probably belonged to the large family of masons of that name (see John Hinchliffe, immediately above for another known member) and was the assistant of J Flaxman from 1805 until Flaxman’s death in 1826. He completed the works Flaxman left unfinished, by which time he was already known for works in the style of his master. On his own account, he produced little work after the early 1840s.
Memorials: Udimore; Washington
Nathaniel Hitch (1845-1938) was a church sculptor in wood and stone, who was born at Ware, the son of a carpenter and joiner. He was apprenticed to Farmer and Brindley around 1860, before settling in Somerset. He returned to London in the 1870s and the speed of his success was striking, for in 1881 he was already employing 9 men and had premises in Harleyford Road, Battersea, where he remained until at least 1933, though possibly not for all that time in person. Among those for whom he worked were W Burges, W D Caröe and J L Pearson. He was especially close to the last, for whom he produced carving at Truro cathedral and for the restoration of the north transept of Westminster Abbey.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – All Saints, Hove
HMDW Architects Limited
The initials of this practice stand for four present or fomer partners, Hanslip, Mercer, Dyson and Weedon. It was formed in 2007 after a merger between C Mercer of Chichester and Russell Hanslip Associates of Highgate, London. The former offices of Clive Mercer in the redundant church of St Mary Rumboldswyke on the edge of Chichester are now used as one of the two offices of the practice. Among its architects are Julian Vallis (JV). It specialises in repairing and extending historic buildings and, in addition to Sussex, is responsible for churches in several parts of south east England.
Extended/altered: Brighton and Hove, – St Mark, Eastern Road (2013); Harting; Horsham, – St Mary; Middleton (2005-07)
Restored: Brighton and Hove, – Chapel Royal (2012 – JV)
Prince Hoare (1711-69) was probably born in Eye, Suffolk and may have trained under P Scheemakers. His elder brother William, a portraitist and printmaker, was a future RA who secured his brother a number of commissions in and around Bath, before Prince Hoare went to Italy around 1742. He stayed there until around 1749, when he settled once more in Bath. A good marriage enabled him to be selective in the commissions he accepted for the rest of his life.
A J Hodgeman
Alfred James Hodgeman (1885-1964) was born and trained as an architect in Adelaide, South Australia. He worked as both an architect and a draftsman in his home city, but from 1911-13 he took part in a major south polar expedition, on which he was responsible for designing the accommodation, as well as serving as artist and cartographer. In recognition of this, a group of islands just off the coast of Antarctica was named after him and remains so to this day. He came to England with the Australian army in 1914 and served at Gallipoli. After the war he stayed in England and resumed architectural practice there, designing hospitals, housing and churches; between 1924 and 1931 directories give his address as Coleman Street, London EC2. In the 1930s he moved to Worthing and retired finally to East Grinstead.
Designed: Stone Cross (1924)
H S Hodges
H S Hodges designed glass for James Powell and Sons after about 1900 until at least 1930 and the lack of knowledge about him (not even his first names) suggests he was an employee of the firm rather than a freelance designer.
Glass: Bexhill, – St Stephen, Woodsgate Park; Hastings, – St Helen, Ore; Lewes, – St Michael; Rotherfield
The company of this name had an address in Marylebone in 1902, when they made the windows at Pagham designed by Law and Allen. In view of the unusual name, which is confirmed by directories, the owner may be presumed to have been Robert Hodghton (1844-1922), glass stainer of Princess Street, Edgware Road and 45 Church Street, Lisson Grove (KD/L 1884). He is always listed in KD as a stainer rather than an artist in stained glass and is described as a lead glazier in the 1881 and 1891 censuses, though in 1901 he called himself a stained glass artist. The weight of the evidence suggests that he was essentially an artisan, though he could be connected with the long established (de) Hoghton fanily of Hoghton Tower, Lancashire. He last appears alone in 1903 and though the details of his later career are not known, several generations followed him into the business of glassmaking. Thus, in 1906 his son Henry (1879-1953), who had quarrelled with his father, was in business with Arthur Emery Mason (1870-1957) as Mason and Hodghton of 118 Chippenham Road, London W. A further address of 474 Harrow Road, London W9 is also recorded without a date (Little etc p84), though as late as 1942 the firm was still in Chippenham Road (KD/L). Henry’s son, Henry George Frederick (1903-1982), took over the business and trained his son, Norman, who, however, did not stay. Robert Hodghton had another son Edward (1876-1950), who in 1901 described himself as a stained glass worker, but it is not known whether he was ever a member of either his father’s or his brother’s firm, for at an unknown date he emigrated to the USA. The latest record of Mason and Hodghton is in 1946, when they made a window for a church in Kilburn.
Grateful thanks to Joanna Hodghton for providing much of the above information about her family
J H Hogan
James Humphries Hogan (1883-1948) joined J Powell and Sons in 1898 and trained under C Whall and, within the firm, W Aikman and J W Brown. He followed Aikman as chief designer in 1913 and later became managing director and finally chairman. During this time he modernised both the technical and artistic aspects of the company’s work. His skill in attracting US business helped to keep the company going in the 1920s and 1930s, when commissions were hard to obtain in Britain. His glass is less diffuse and more intensely coloured than that of many of his contemporaries, though some of his larger windows are conventional in style. In later life he laid more emphasis on the leading of his work, which in combination with intense colouring he liked gives the best of his work a glowing quality. He became master of the Art Workers Guild in 1936. He worked closely with Sir Giles G Scott over the glazing of Liverpool cathedral and also designed items such as tableware.
Brighton and Hove, St Mary – (with (fnu) Read, made by Powell’s) 1915; Coleman’s Hatch, Holy Trinity – (with A F Coakes, made by Powell’s) 1934; Frant, St Alban – (made by Powell’s) c1946; Rotherfield, St Denys – 1916 (with J H Hodges) and 1934 (both made by Powell’s); Rye, St Mary – 1911 (with J W Brown), 1912 (with W Aikman) and 1929 (all made by Powell’s); Wadhurst, St Peter and St Paul – (made by Powell’s) 1916; Waldron, All Saints – (with E Penwarden, made by Powell’s) 1925
Appledram, St Mary – (made by Powell’s) 1936; Bepton, St Mary – (made by Powell’s) 1919; Cowfold, St Peter – (made by Powell’s) 1927; Lodsworth, St Peter – (made by Powell’s) c1936; Warninglid, St Andrew (secularised) – (made by Powell’s) 1939; West Lavington – (with W Aikman, made by Powell’s) 1926
Edward Hogwood worked as a designer for J Powell and Sons in the company’s earlier years, though few windows can be attributed to him with certainty and very little is known about him. There is an Edward Hogwood who was born in Bermondsey in 1829/30 who appears in the records once only, in the 1861 census for the same area, where he is described as a painter and artist. However, though quite plausible, he can only be a possibility unless more information becomes available.
James Holder, of whom there are records between 1818-24, worked at Emsworth, Hampshire. He signs a small group of neo-classical memorials in south Hampshire and West Sussex.
Memorials: Funtington; Westbourne
Frank Holford is said to have been churchwarden of St Michael, Brighton, some time after 1893 and was a skilled painter, but resists easy identification. There is a wine merchant of the name in Brighton at the time, whose address was 23 Buckingham Place (1845-1922). He moved to London at some time after 1901 and was living off his own means in Paddington in 1911. By the time of his death he was living in Tiverton, Devon, but the details of his will leave no doubt that he is the same man. Alternatively, there is Frank Ernest Holford (1867-1937), a pork butcher of various addresses in the town. The wine merchant seems rather more likely in view of his age, though there is no certainty. Whichever it was, he could have been related to George Holford, who was for a while a partner in what became the Brighton architectural practice of Clayton and Black, whose artistic talents are unknown.
Decoration: Brighton and Hove – St Michael, wall-paintings
Henry George Alexander Holiday (1839-1927) trained as a painter at the RA Schools and elsewhere. He was befriended by Sir E Burne-Jones and in 1862 was invited to succeed him as designer for J Powell and Sons, though he knew little about stained glass. He was too slow and painstaking to be successful as a painter and became known as a decorative artist, encouraged by W Burges among others. Holiday’s work for the latter included mosaics and enamels, but he was increasingly at odds with Burges’s continued emphasis on the gothic. This work with Burges was one instance of Holiday’s involvement with makers other than Powell’s, though they continued to produce the overwhelming proportion of his work. Other makers included Lavers and Barraud and Heaton, Butler and Bayne (see this section above). His association with these firms and with Powell’s exposed him further to post-mediaeval influences and the change was compounded by a visit to Italy in 1867, which enhanced the influence of Italian renaissance art; he commenced this visit with W G Saunders, also a protégé of Burges and whose tastes were close, but they soon parted. After Holiday’s return he resumed work for Powell’s until 1891 and as William Waters comments (Damozels and Deities p12), many of his contemporaries regarded him as the equal of Burne-Jones. However, his growing political idealism led to a dislike of what he saw as the firm’s excessively commercial outlook, which on occasion led them to use his designs for his essentially renaissance figures within a gothic setting, though there were instances where he was able to dissuade them. He also had a period of ill-health in the early 1870s and harboured increasing doubts of a technical nature about his work, which he remedied. Eventually, in response to these various pressures he set up his own workshop in Hampstead, taking W Glasby, Powell’s chief glass painter, with him. Thus most glass by Holiday dated 1892 or later no longer involved Powell’s, but there are a few instances where there seems to have been some kind of continuing relationship, like the glass of 1903 at Bepton which was partly designed by E Penwarden, who was still working for Powell’s. Holiday’s glass of this period is often overcrowded to the point of confusion, particularly with his larger designs. His workshop lasted until 1906, but he continued to produce work until the 1920s which were made by Lowndes and Drury , no doubt because Mary Lowndes had been a pupil. Holiday’s political activities, particularly the cause of Irish Home Rule, would have served to strengthen the links between them. Although his style did not change much during this period, his beliefs surely provided the impetus for some powerful works during World War I.
Lit: D and J Hadley: Henry Holiday, 1839-1927, JSG 19 pp48-75; J Hadley: Henry Holiday – Windows and Reredoses made by James Powell and Sons 1863-1914; J Hadley: Henry Holiday – Windows etc made by Holiday’s Workshop etc; P Cormack, (ed): Henry Holiday, Waltham Forest, 1989
Glass: Battle; Bepton; Binsted; Brighton and Hove, – St Martin; – Holy Trinity, Ship Street; Burpham; Chailey, – St Mary; – St Peter; Compton; Fairwarp; Hailsham; Hastings, – St Clement (made by Lowndes and Drury); Kirdford; Lewes, – All Saints; – St John-sub-Castro; – St Michael; Lodsworth; Madehurst (fragments); Oving; Piddinghoe; Rusper; Sompting; South Malling; Stedham; Ticehurst (attr); Uckfield, – Holy Cross; Wartling; Westdean; West Firle; Westbourne; Westhampnett; Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene
Anthony Lynn Hollaway (1928-2000) was born in Dorset and studied under L Lee at the Royal College of Art, where he and K New assisted in producing Lee’s work for Coventry cathedral. He later set up a studio in London and did much work in the north west, including a major series of windows for Manchester cathedral. Hollaway was also a painter (especially of murals and landscapes) and some of his glass commissions were for secular purposes. In his later years he moved to Lincolnshire.
Obit: The Guardian 13 September 2000 [by K New]
Glass: Eastbourne, – St John, Meads
D M Hollis
David Michael Hollis was a partner of The Stevens Partnership of Hastings when, in 1979, he undertook repairs to Westfield church.
For his work, see under The Stevens Partnership
F W Holloway
Francis William Holloway (1825-1906) was born in Christchurch, Hampshire, but by 1851 he was a builder in Haywards Heath (Harrod’s Directory), attracted perhaps by the rapidly growing new town. He remained there or in the adjacent Cuckfield for the rest of his life and was described as an architect in 1871 (KD) and 1883 (BN 19, 2 February 1883 p i). In 1881 he was living in some comfort in Cuckfield. He signed a memorial to the Council of the RIBA in 1880 about architectural training, which suggests that, though he was never a member, the numerous other signatories accepted him as an architect.
Restored: Cuckfield (1871)
John Holman (1765-1855) was a clockmaker of Lewes (Llewellyn p206) who was born at Hamsey. He was perhaps displaying his other metal-working skills when he made a brass inscription in St Anne’s church, probably soon after 1808. By this time he was probably working on his own, for an initial partner, William Kemp, had died in 1798 (Brent, Georgian Lewes p49) and he became a prominent citizen. In 1813 he served as a high constable, responsible for maintaining law and order and much else besides. A further plain brass inscription dated 1853 in St Michael, Lewes could just also be by him despite his considerable age or, perhaps more likely, by a younger member of his family.
Brasses: Lewes, – St Anne; – St Michael (attr)
Frank Holt (1843-1928) was the nephew and successor of William Holland (1809-83) and was born in Bromsgrove, not far from Warwick, where his uncle’s firm was located. Holland exhibited both stained glass and decorative painting at the Great Exhibition in 1851 (Catalogue page 127 item 63 and page 136 item 407), but by 1881 the firm had shrunk in size and Holland was living in London, leaving Holt at Warwick. The firm became known as Holland and Holt, before taking the latter’s name only. In 1901 and 1911 Holt called himself simply a decorator, although a window by his company at Ashton under Hill, Worcestershire dating from 1912, shows the firm had not abandoned the craft altogether.
J M Hooker
John Marshall Hooker (1829-1906) had a complex and as yet imperfectly understood career. He appears to have been involved in two practices in Kent; the first was Caveler and Hooker of Tunbridge Wells and Margate, which is recorded from 1853 to 1858, the latter date being that of a school at Yalding, Kent. Caveler is William Caveler of Margate (1814/15-71), author of Select Specimens of Gothic Architecture (published in 1835 when he was 20), who contributed drawings of East Kent churches to The Builder from 1845 and published a well received study of Warmington church, Northamptonshire; in 1852 he was Secretary of the Margate Pier Company. In 1855 (KD/Kent) his address is given at Margate, and also in the censuses of 1851 and 1861, whilst in 1871 he was recorded as a widowed visitor in Handsworth, Birmingham. However, Caveler had undertaken work at the church in Brenchley , Kent as early as 1847 and it seems inconceivable that Hooker was unconnected with this, not least because he was born in Brenchley, so his association with Hooker clearly started much earlier than thought. Brenchley also features prominently in the second practice involving Hooker, Hooker and Wheeler, which was largely based there. His partner was R Wheeler, who was widely known as ‘Wheeler of Brenchley’ but the practice also had an address at Tunbridge Wells not far away, though his career is also far from clear. The practice is recorded between 1856 and 1862 (almshouses at Faversham, Kent). During this time they did work as far away as Lincolnshire and for this period only, Hooker was a member of the Sussex Archaeological Society. The overlapping dates suggest that he could have been simultaneously involved with two partners, though possibly his name was retained in the first practice after he had left. Throughout his career Hooker worked on his own as well as with a partner; thus, in 1860 he designed a school at Hertford (B 18 p144) and several buildings, including two churches, have been ascribed to him alone between 1870 and 1880. Between 1866 and 1889 records show he had addresses in both London and Sevenoaks, Kent. He designed many public buildings in the North. After what appears to have been a period on his own, from 1883 to 1887 he had yet another partner, Frederick Hemings (1855-94), a former assistant of R W Edis, working from an address at 5 and 7 Fenchurch Street. In 1886 John Michael (sic) Hooker of that address was declared bankrupt (BN 51 pp149 and 302) which may be presumed to be a misreading. In 1891, Hooker was living at 9 Beaufort Gardens, Lewisham and in 1901, as a widower, was a lodger in Deptford. However, he then moved to the USA, probably because one of his sons was already living there, and died in Philadelphia. This information is derived from the inscription on an elaborate arcaded family tomb in the churchyard at Brenchley.
Restored: East Grinstead, – St Swithun (1874-76)
Brian Hoolahan is the partner of R Meynell and like him has a particular interest in churches in the Chichester area where the practice is located.
Extended: (with R Meynell) Funtington (2006)
A H Hoole
Arnold Hankinson Hoole (1846-1915) was born at Walthamstow, though he later lived in south London, in 1881 at Blackheath and later in Beckenham. His offices were at several addresses around Charing Cross – in 1883 he shared one with ‘G Maylard’ (BA 20, 31 August 1883 p vii) who was probably Charles Grason Maylard (1835-1905). In later years he had two partners, T G Thomas (who cannot be further identified), recorded in 1901 and John Edward Dixon-Spain (1878-1955), recorded in 1908 Some of his churches in the developing suburbs of London and beyond are quite ambitious. The nature, if any, of his relationship with the better known Elijah Hoole (1837-1912) is not known. The son of a prominent Wesleyan missionary to India of the same name, the latter in 1871 was living in Eastbourne and later at 104 Great Russell Street, London and was the architect of Toynbee Hall in the East End as well as churches and chapels in London.
Extended: Egdean (1898); Fittleworth (1896)
Polly Hope (1933-2013) originally studied dance but then changed to painting and sculpture, in which she trained finally at the Slade School. She lived and worked in a former brewery in Spitalfields, London and was closely involved in the project to rebuild the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, where several of her works are to be found. She became particularly known for her works of art in fabric, some on a large scale, but worked extensively in other media, including in particular paintings of dogs, and in 1984 exhibited sculpture at the RA. There is also a mural by her at the Barbican Centre in the City and a fountain she helped design in Hyde Park.
Obit: The Times, 14 December 2013
Fitting: Scaynes Hill, tapestry
W Hope Hughes
Wyndham Hope Hughes (1849-1948) became a close associate of C E Kempe for whom, he executed some of his finest decorative schemes. Hope Hughes also served as one of Kempe’s principal draughtsmen and outlived both him and the successor company of Kempe and Co. He appears on occasion to have worked in a freelance capacity, notably at All Saints, Cambridge, where he was involved in G F Bodley‘s decorative scheme which also involved Kempe but only to a limited extent.
Painted retable: Staplefield
Humphrey Hopper (1765-1844) was born in County Durham, but the earliest known event in his artistic life was the exhibition of one of his works at the RA in 1799. This was before he commenced the study of sculpture at the RA Schools in 1801 and clearly he had already acquired the basic skills of his craft, as his age at the time would also suggest strongly. After going into business on his own account, his earlier work was largely decorative in nature, but he also produced many monuments throughout his life.
Memorials: Donnington; New Shoreham; Tillington
Thomas Hopper (1776-1856) was born in London and started as a surveyor, assisting his father. At the age of 18 he took over the business, as his father, in the words of Hopper’s obituary, was ‘of intemperate habits’, but came to the attention of the circle round the Prince Regent and became an architect. He designed some interiors for the Prince at Carlton House and worked on other large mansions, using all the styles popular at the time. His failure in the many architectural competitions of the period rankled and led him to make violent criticisms of those who had greater success. He designed several gothic churches and was County Surveyor of Essex for 40 years.
Obit: The Builder 14 p481; DNB
Designed: Stansted (1812-15 – attr)
Rosalind Hore is a painter and sculptor who specialises in Christian subjects. She has been a teacher and is a member of Commission4Mission, based in Dagenham, the area in which she lives. This is an organisation of Christian artists with the objective of encouraging the placing of contemporary art in churches. Their work is almost entirely to be found in east London and Essex.
Sculpture: Goring, – St Mary
George Hornblower (1858-1940) was born in Birkenhead and from 1876 was a pupil of his father, Lewis Hornblower (1823-79) in Liverpool. After his father died, George Hornblower completed his training with his brother, Frederick William (1848-1901) in 1886. In the following year he passed the RIBA Examination (Proc RIBA), giving an address in Highgate, but then returned to practise in the North West until moving back permanently to London where he was a lodger in Hendon in 1891. For the first two years there he was in partnership with Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (1851-1942), the pioneer of Art Nouveau. Hornblower was best known as a designer of housing, both in the fast developing northern suburbs of London and in the country. By 1918 he was living at 2 Devonshire Terrace W (KD/L) and from 1923 to 1928 Ralph Windsor Thorp (1884-1966), a Yorkshireman, was his partner at the same address. Hornblower was also Consulting Architect to University College Hospital.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Sidley, Mission Church (unbuilt – 1908)
Christopher Horsnaile (c1658-1742), the elder of two sculptors of this name, worked with E Stanton in London from c1720, in a style that looked back to that of the late C17. As well as monuments, he worked as a mason on major buildings in London, including Westminster Abbey and the Temple church.
Memorials: Buxted, – St Margaret (attr with Stanton); Eastbourne, – St Mary, Willingdon (attr with Stanton; Northiam (attr with Stanton); Waldron (attr with Stanton); Warbleton (attr with Stanton); Warminghurst
The main impetus for the establishment of this firm appears to have come from Edwin Horwood (1834-92) assisted by his youngest brother Mark Horwood (1840-1904) and more intermittently by his younger brother Harry (1838-1917), all of whom were born in Mells, Somerset. Their widowed mother in 1851 was a pauper, formerly a servant, and two elder brothers were agricultural labourers, so their origins were unpromising. The earliest known glass for which the brothers were responsible dates from c1856 at Rushbury, Shropshire and there is more by them of 1860 at Sunningdale, Berkshire. The record of the latter unequivocally states them to be ‘of Mells’, but the wide geographical distribution of these early windows suggests they had built up a reputation very fast. The brothers had learned the craft locally at St Andrew’s College, a school for crafts founded by the then rector of Mells in 1843. This appears to have been an early example of the craft schools, most usually under clerical patronage, which were established in the mid- to later C19, particularly in the west of England, and were intended to teach practical skills to those who might otherwise be unable to acquire them. Two of the brothers settled initially in Mells, as the 1861 census confirms. Edwin and Mark were described as a glass painter and stainer and a glazier respectively but Harry is missing since he had emigrated to Canada, probably in 1860. By 1863 the record of another window at Sunningdale gives the two brothers’ address as Frome, which was close to Mells. In the following year Harry was once more in Mells, for in that year he married there and very shortly afterwards he had joined his brothers in Frome, which is the birthplace of a succession of children down to 1874. At the latest by 1866 they were established formally as a company known as Horwood Brothers (KD Somerset), which in 1871 employed four men and a boy. Harry and Mark at that time called themselves glass-painters and Edwin seems to have been the main designer; since he was also known as a landscape artist this is plausible. They also produced wall decorations though none in Sussex. The later development of the company is problematic. Harry returned to Ontario, Canada permanently, probably in 1874, though members of his family remained in Frome down to 1884. In Canada he had some early success, as a large window in the Catholic cathedral, Ottawa, signed and dated 1879 shows, and his later work is widely distributed across eastern Canada. In the Canadian census of 1891 he was living in Edwardsburg, Ontario and he gives his profession as glass painter, as did at least three of his offspring. Perhaps as a consequence of his departure the firm in Frome became widely known by Edwin’s name alone and the earliest such reference is in KD Somerset for 1875. It is however likely that Mark remained involved, for in the 1881 census he was still living in Frome, described as a glass painter and this remained the case in 1891. It seems highly unlikely that he was at this time working in the same small town independently from his brother. Furthermore, there is documentary evidence that he remained in contact with Edwin, for the latter’s death certificate records Mark as present at the death in Frome. Whatever Mark’s position, the company shrank in size during this period from its peak in 1871, for in 1881 the number of staff had halved and in 1891 there were none. This could suggest that Edwin had effectively taken over either on his own or supported only by Mark, for there are windows in his name only at Stonehouse, Gloucestershire (1884) and at Ashton, Northamptonshire in 1892. The latter glass dates from the year of Edwin’s death and shows that he remained active in glass manufacture and design until then. Mark was thus left as the sole survivor of the three brothers in this country and moved to Eastbourne, probably soon after his brother’s death and when living there in 1901 he described himself as a gentleman, living off his own means. Though never large, the firm was, particularly during its early years, used on occasion by W Butterfield.
My thanks to Canon Jeff Hopewell for providing much further information about the development of the firm and the whereabouts of the brothers after 1875
F E Howard
Frank Ernest Howard (1888-1934) was a pupil of Sir J N Comper and lived in Oxford. He specialised in church architecture, working chiefly in the gothic style, and wrote at least one book about the subject for the Batsford series. As the boom in church building and restoration was over, most of his work consisted of fittings and alterations, including stained glass (though no glass is known in Sussex), and these are widely spread over England. His fittings reveal the strong influence of Comper and many were made by the Warham Guild.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Altered: Egdean (1928)
Fittings: Bognor, – St Wilfrid, reredos; Brighton and Hove, – Good Shepherd, Dyke Road, rood figures; Henfield, reredos
(Harold) Ian (Charles) Howgate (1910-89) was born in Folkestone, Kent, the son of a politically radical Primitive Methodist minister who in later life was ordained in the Anglican church. His son studied first at the Wolverhampton Municipal School of Arts and Crafts, where he qualified in 1926 and moved to further study in St Albans, whilst he also studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. At St Albans he came into contact with Faith Craft for whom he commenced work in 1928, remaining until 1939. He worked there both as craftsman and designer and his work is in a more contemporary idiom than Faith Craft’s later work. However, after war service he joined the Marconi Company, still living in St Albans, as a draughtsman and never returned to church art. His reasons are said to have been financial. As the Stations of the Cross in Christ Church, St Leonards were not installed until c1946, Faith Craft clearly continued to use his designs, of which at least nine sets were made.
[The above information comes from the researches of Fr Stephen Keeble]
Designed and carved: Hastings, – Christ Church, St Leonards, Stations of the Cross
Melanie (known as Mel) Howse trained in architectural glass making at Swansea Institute between 1989 and 1992 and has since then worked largely in Sussex, though her most conspicuous commission was for a window in Durham cathedral (completed 2019). For some years she taught at West Dean College and had a studio in Chichester from 1996. As well as large scale compositions, particularly in recent years many of them for secular buildings, she has produced more conventional stained glass windows and also engraved work. In addition she designs other fittings and more recently she has worked with enamelled glass.
Glass: Angmering; Birdham; Boxgrove; Chidham; Earnley; East Lavant; East Preston; Funtington; Stedham; Whatlington
Fittings: Arundel, doors; Brighton and Hove, – St Paul, doors; Hurstpierpoint, – Holy Trinity – doors; Rustington – doors; Seaford, font; Wisborough Green, St Peter ad Vincula – glazing for vestries 2018
Joan Howson (1885-1964) studied at the Liverpool School of Art from 1909 to 1912. In the following year she became a pupil of C Townsend at the Glass House, before going into full partnership with her in 1920. She was the daughter of an archdeacon and gifted as a musician, a subject she had studied in Paris. Both she and Caroline Townsend were interested in Socialism and the women’s suffrage movement. Their studio was one of those in Deodar Road, Putney and after Caroline Townsend died in 1944, her partner continued the full name of the partnership. Particularly during this later phase of her life, she also restored mediaeval glass, as well as windows damaged in World War II, including some in Westminster Abbey.
Glass: Donnington, 1951; Rustington (with C C Townsend) 1924-27; Storrington (with C C Townsend) 1933
Charles Hudson (1818/19-81(?)) trained originally under the eminent painter William Dyce (1806-64). By 1846 he had a workshop in Pentonville (KD/L) and though in 1851 he was listed as a glass painter employing two others in Clerkenwell, his main address, as stated in KD/L, remained in Pentonville. However, he is no longer listed in KD/L as a glass stainer after 1860, reverting instead, without changing his address, to his earlier calling of artist. He remained there until 1879 when he gave an address in Busby Place, Camden Road, though by 1881, which was also his last appearance in KD/L, he was living in Hackney. There is no certain record of his death, which probably occurred soon after. He was often patronised by B Ferrey.
Yvonne Hudson (1924-85) studied at the Slade School of Art where she became interested in sculpture. She also painted and her extensive work included watercolours, ceramics and embroidery. Born in Essex, she settled at Earnley after marrying a local farmer named John Rusbridge and spent the rest of her life there. She taught locally and was active in her parish church, where what is probably the only window based on one of her designs is a memorial to her.
Glass and tiling: Earnley
Statue: East Wittering, – St Anne
Henry Hughes (1822-83) initially trained as a glassmaker under Thomas Ward’s first partner John Henry Nixon (see under Ward and Hughes) and was later an assistant of T Willement. Ward was the surviving partner of Ward and Nixon and had been working on his own for some years when Hughes rejoined him as a partner in 1857 at the firm’s existing address at 67 Frith Street, Soho. It was then renamed Ward and Hughes, but from the start Hughes was listed in KD/L a second time on his own account at the same address, suggesting that he was still undertaking work for himself. This situation continued until 1868, when Hughes on his own moved to 25 Green Street, Grosvenor Square (previously Willement’s address), though the main practice continued in Frith Street. In 1881 Hughes disappears from Green Street, though Ward and Hughes continued without a change of name until his death two years later. Though never in the van of progress, Hughes brought a more accurately mediaeval style to the renamed company, thereby assuring its continued success.
For the firm’s work, see under Ward and Hughes
A J Humbert
Albert Jenkins Humbert (1821-77) was born in Lambeth, but the details of his training are unknown. He travelled to Italy with C Reeks and after return they had by 1851 formed a partnership in Hastings and were living at the same address. Like Reeks, Humbert was involved in building houses for the Crown estate there and both moved to London around 1855/56, continuing together for about four more years. Thereafter, Humbert remained involved with the Board of Works and lived with his father in Fitzroy Square. Humbert came to the attention of Prince Albert and thus of Queen Victoria thanks to the restoration of Bodiam church, since the incumbent was related to T Cubitt, who among other things designed Osborne House for the royal couple. Humbert was working with the Prince by 1856 and continued to do so after the latter died in 1861. Such work included the royal mausoleum at Frogmore, and in 1870 the reconstruction for the Prince of Wales at Sandringham House, Norfolk. He ceased practice in his final years, probably on account of excessive drinking – his address in the final RIBA membership list in which he appears is care of a relative and he died in the Isle of Man, where he had gone for the sake of his health.
Obit: The Builder 36 p24; DNB
Restored: Bodiam (1853)
There is little doubt that the architect so named who is said to have designed the chancel at Sayers Common in 1909 is the same as A G Humphry (see immediately below), whose name was sometimes spelled wrongly with an e.
A G Humphry A G Humphrey
Alfred Gilson Humphry’s (1868-1928) names are frequently misspelled, variously as Gibson and Humphrey, but there is little doubt over the correct spelling. Born in Brighton, the son of a surgeon, he went to Haileybury and became a pupil and then assistant of G F Bodley. In 1891 he was lodging with the curate of Hoar Cross, Staffordshire, where he was serving as Bodley’s clerk of works during the extension of the church, one of Bodley’s finest, for Bodley believed in close supervision of his projects by someone he trusted if he could not do so himself. Humphry went into independent practice in 1894 in London, though he had already designed a retable at Caythorpe, Lincolnshire on his own account the previous year. In 1901 he was living with his father in Crowborough in a house he had designed. He had a partner, Thomas Buchanan Carter (1872-1934), a fellow assistant of Bodley, from 1899 to 1908 and continued alone until 1920 at 5 Staple Inn, Holborn (KD/L), where his slightly older contemporary and fellow pupil of Bodley, A H Skipworth had also worked; though there is no known link, it seems probable that they at least knew each other. Humphry spent his last years at Iden where he died, his death being registered in Rye as ‘Humphrey’, but the probate record of his will in the same year gives the correct spelling. The nature of his relationship to William Gilson Humphry (1815-86), an eminent theologian of his time who became vicar of St Martin-in-the-Fields (DNB), is not known but may be presumed.
My thanks to Noel Humphry of Melbourne, Australia for further information about Humphry’s later years
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Agnes (1913 – possibly completion only and secularised 1977)
Altered/extended: Sayers Common (1909 as ‘Humphrey’); Withyham, – St John (1924 as ‘Alfred Gibson Humphrey’)
R C Hussey
Richard Charles Hussey (1806-87) was the son of a rector of Sandhurst, Kent. He was a pupil of the architect and surveyor John Wallen (1785-1865) and after travel in France, was from 1835-41 partner in Birmingham of Thomas Rickman (1776-1841), the most notable early C19 British historian of mediaeval architecture. At this time Rickman was impeded by ill-health and, even before he died, Hussey was chiefly responsible for an increasingly large amount of work over much of England, including new designs, restorations and reports on other architects’ works. He moved to London in 1849, but before this he trained Rickman’s son and became architect to Chester cathedral. His main areas of activity were church restorations and the building of parsonages, though he was also a gifted etcher and helped his brother A Hussey with his book on churches in Kent, Surrey and Sussex. However, he was sufficiently regarded as an architect to become vice-president of the RIBA. He ceased practising after 1867 though his restoration of the chancel of Stanton St John, Oxfordshire, started in that year, was not completed until 1870. His retirement was possibly on account of ill health and in 1871 he is given as living in retirement at Harbledown by Canterbury, where he died. In his final years he researched extensively in Canterbury cathedral library, where several books bear his name. However, he bequeathed the main body of his papers to the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
Obits: The Builder 52 p215; Transactions of the RIBA NS v3 pp163-66
Restored: Waldron (1859-62)
Gerald Pemberton Hutchinson (1866-1951) was the son of a clergyman, who was a master at Rugby School. The son was living as a lodger in London in 1891 when he described himself as an artist, though nothing is known about his training. By this time he was working for J Powell and Sons, whom he joined in 1889 on the manufacturing side. In 1895 he joined the Art Workers Guild and in both 1901 and 1911 he called himself more precisely an artist in stained glass; by this time he was married and lived successively in Chislehurst, Kent and Kensington. In fact, within a short time at Powell’s, he had come to take a greater part on the managerial side and by 1920 was a director. Most of his designs for the firm date from the earlier part of his career or from the 1930s. They are not highly rated by Dennis Hadley, but his glass at Lower Beeding in particular displays an originality of design that goes well beyond Powell’s routine efforts of the period and suggests that this is not an entirely fair assessment.
Glass: Hunston; Kirdford; Lancing, – St James; Lindfield; Lower Beeding; Slinfold; Wivelsfield; Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene
R S Hyde
Robert Singer Hyde (1846-1913) belonged to the Hides (see this section above) or Hydes of Worthing; he was baptised ‘Hide’, but preferred the alternative spelling in later life. His father was born Singer Edward Hide (1803-1887), statuary and mason in Worthing and Broadwater in 1855 (KD) and a surveyor in 1861, but who in 1871 had become Edward Singer Hyde. R S Hyde was pupil and later partner of E E Scott in Brighton but was back in Worthing in 1881 – in 1883 he calls himself ‘late of the firm of Scott and Hyde’ (BN 15 June p xxii). In 1902 his son, Raymond Robert Wentworth Hyde (1874-1934), previously his pupil and assistant, became his partner. R S Hyde claimed St Botolph, Heene as his work rather than Scott’s, and according to his obituary in Architect’s Journal also designed the spire of Holy Trinity, Worthing. He was Borough Surveyor in Worthing where he designed schools and other public buildings. He should not be confused with Frederick William Hyde who is listed as an architect and surveyor in Brighton in the 1880s and may be presumed to be R S Hyde’s younger brother of that name. In 1871 and 1881 he gives his profession as architect and surveyor in Brighton and for that reason has been wrongly identified as Scott’s partner (A Brodie etc). He was born in 1848 and disappears from the records after 1891, when he had married and was living in Hampstead. To confuse matters somewhat, F W Hyde did work on occasion with Scott and Hyde as surveyor and architect and in 1882 he appears with R S Hyde alone, working on some villas in Burgess Hill (BA 18 p444). F W Hyde was an ARIBA from 1882-86, when he was removed from membership, possibly for non-payment of dues.
Obit: Arch J 38 (1913) p344
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St James (1873-75 – as Scott and H – dem); – St Matthew (c1880 – as Scott and H- not built); – St Saviour (1880 as Scott and H – plans only then); South Lancing (1880 – as Scott and H – not executed); Worthing, – St Matthew (1898-1900 and 1911); – St Symphorian, Durrington (1896 and 1912 – the latter as Singer Hyde and Co) – both unexecuted)
Altered/extended: Brighton and Hove, – All Souls, Eastern Road (1879 – as Scott and H – dem); – Annunciation (1881 – as Scott and H); – Chapel Royal (nd, with Scott); – St John, Carlton Hill (1879 – as Scott and H); Eastbourne, – Christ Church (1879 – as Scott and H); Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene (1878-79 (with Scott) and 1903-05); – Christ Church (1893-94); – St Paul (1891-93); – Holy Trinity (nd – 1888 and/or 1894?)
Fitting: Sompting, reredos