Published works – General

Since the study of churches became widespread in the early C19, much has been written about architecture generally and about specific aspects.  The main bibliography lists books used for this work, though there are bound to be omissions, even among works of the first rank.

Particularly useful are those on particular aspects or specific architects.  Among those on a single period, the Taylors’ study of Anglo-Saxon architecture (1965-78) stands out.  Like Pevsner they conditioned the thinking of a generation on the subject; indeed, they largely revived interest in it.  Some of their ideas have since been challenged, but it is still the best general study, particularly of parish churches as the authors necessarily concentrate on these, whereas studies of later periods like Bond on Gothic architecture (1907), dated but still useful, devote most attention to greater churches, cathedrals and abbeys.

Many studies of individual aspects are also dated, like Bond on fonts (1908) and Cautley on Royal Arms (1934), but there is nothing newer.  More recently, interest in stained glass has revived; the most notable work is that by Richard Marks on mediaeval glass (1993).  Since about 1970, C19 glass has been taken seriously and the quantity of information has increased greatly.  The pioneering general study was that by Martin Harrison (1980), but though still valuable, it is in urgent need of revision. However, there has been an increasing number of studies of individual artists, including Michael Fisher on Hardman’s (2008) and S A Shepherd on Pugin’s glass (2009).  Most remarkable has been the enduring research by Denis Hadley into James Powell, perhaps the most prolific glass-maker, the results of which are on-line.  Among those who have been the subject of published studies, C E Kempe has received the most, particularly a gazetteer of his work, edited by Philip Collins (2000), and a study by Adrian Barlow (2018) to supplement that by Margaret Stavridi (1988) which benefited from personal knowledge of some of those involved.

The two main reference works on earlier British architects are the Biographical Dictionaries by John Harvey for mediaeval architects (1954, revised 1984) and Howard Colvin, for the period from 1600 to 1840 (1954, most recently revised 2008).  Though published originally in the same year, their approaches, determined in large measure by what survives from the periods they cover, are very different.  Many of Harvey’s attributions are based on stylistic considerations and are thus speculative and sometimes, it must be said, rather optimistic.  In any case, there are few definite references to Sussex churches, as is also the case with Colvin before the late C18. Colvin is much more cautious and generally bases his conclusions on documentary evidence.  Following on from Colvin and covering most of the C19 and early C20 there is the Directory of British Architects 1834-1914 (edited by A Brodie etc and issued in a revised edition in 2001).  This is published under the auspices of the BAL and is more summary without lists of works.  It does not aspire to completeness, being largely confined to architects who were members of the RIBA or are covered in material in the library.

Nevertheless, its entries do provide further sources of information for the architects covered, so it is a valuable starting point.  Colvin before the first edition of his Dictionary appeared, collaborated with Rupert Gunnis, whose Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851 was published in 1953 (with light revisions in 1968).  This has been superseded by a new work by Ingrid Roscoe and others,  A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660-1851 (2009), which though based in part on Gunnis’s unpublished material, has over three times as many pages in considerably smaller print.   By co-incidence, Maurice Grant published a similar work in the same year as Gunnis; as its title, A Dictionary of British Sculptors from the XIIIth to the XXth Century, shows its spread was wider, but it is far slighter, though not without useful information.

The revival of interest in C19 architecture has been marked by studies of major architects, starting with Butterfield (Paul Thompson, 1971), Shaw (by Andrew Saint, 1976, since revised), Pearson (by Anthony Quiney, 1979) G G Scott (by David Cole, 1980) and Burges (by J M Crook, 1981, since revised).  Some of those that have not been revised are now inevitably showing their age and one or two are overdue for replacement.  Significant gaps remain (most notably a general study of Street), but with the publication in more recent years of works on Salvin (by Jill Allibone -1988), Caröe (by Jennifer Freeman), Reginald Blomfield (by R A Fellows), Woodyer (by John Elliott and John Pritchard), Temple Moore – with Leslie Moore (by Geoffrey Brandwood), G G Scott Junior (by Gavin Stamp), Paley and Austin (by Geoffrey Brandwood) and William White (by Gill Hunter), coverage has improved enormously .  The most recent so far is Michael Hall’s study of G F Bodley (2014), which has filled one of the biggest gaps to remain.

Some of these works are inevitably less significant in terms of Sussex because their subjects produced little work there, but the flow of further works is continuing and revised editions of earlier works or, in a few cases, replacements, are starting to appear.  Where there is no recent work, the researcher must rely on earlier studies and memoirs, like that on Street by his son (1888).  This contains some strange errors, not least with regard to Sussex, but the appearance in 2003 of an annotated edition of Sir T G Jackson’s Recollections (completed c1915) shows the enduring value of such works.