Gregory Page (1773-1834) is one of a relatively small number of local statuaries in Sussex with any pretensions – possibly there were not more because the proximity of London discouraged them. He worked in Horsham, where he first appears in the Poll Book for 1807. He appears again in 1820 and is listed as a stonemason in PD 1823.
Memorials: Warnham; West Chiltington; Wisborough Green
Paul Edward Paget (1901-85) was the son of a bishop of Chester and became partner of J Seely (Lord Mottistone), whom he met at Cambridge and with whom he restored many damaged buildings after World War II. Despite limited professional training, since 1926 he had been a successful designer of opulent houses, including the former Eltham Palace, and claimed that he looked after 14 city churches. During his partnership with Seeley he concentrated more on cultivating their clients than on design work. Nevertheless, he succeeded Seeley as surveyor to St Paul’s Cathedral in 1963 and designed or restored many churches. He continued to call the practice Seeley and Paget and during this period designed at least one stained glass window, as well as being master of the Art Workers Guild in 1971.
Lit: C Aslet: An interview with the Late Paul Paget 1901-1985, TSJ 6 pp16-25; Obit: The Times 16 Aug 1985
Restored: Petworth (1953 – attr)
Sir R Paget
Sir Richard Arthur Surtees Paget, second baronet, (1869-1955) was the son of an MP who was educated at Eton and then at Oxford, where he studied chemistry. He subsequently turned to the law and for much of his career combined his two areas of study, notably in the field of patent law. He also had strong artistic interests, especially in the field of music. Combined with his scientific interests, this led to the researches into human speech and communication for which he became best known; in particular his findings on communication with the deaf had a lasting effect. He became a member of many artistic and scientific bodies, including the RIBA of which he was an honorary associate.
Monument: Hastings, – Holy Trinity
Paley and Austin
The practice owed its origins to that established in c1835 in Lancaster by Edmund Sharpe (1809-77). In 1838 the young Edward Graham Paley (1823-95) joined as a pupil and from the mid-1840s progressively took it over as Sharpe became mainly interested in studying and writing about architecture; he had withdrawn entirely by 1851, though he became increasingly a respected expert in his field – see under New Shoreham for what proved to be his final intervention. By 1851 the practice had become highly successful, mainly in the North West, and was renowned for never turning down a commission because it was too small. In addition to churches, they designed almost every other kind of building, industrial, commercial, educational and domestic, the last including several large houses. In 1868 Paley took Hubert James Austin (1841-1915), the son of a clergyman in County Durham, as his partner; he had been articled to his brother Thomas in Newcastle and then assisted Sir George G Scott. The practice was one of the pioneers in the 1870s in the revival of interest in the Perp style and most of their commissions were Low Church in character. Later generations joined the firm, which at various times was called Austin and Paley and Paley, Austin and Paley and lasted until 1940. During his time in Scott’s office, Austin took part in at least one sketching tour of churches in Sussex, though it is most probable that the practice took on three small restoration projects in the Eastbourne area because in two of the cases the Duke of Devonshire was patron of the living (as well as being one of the two main developers of the resort ofastbourne itself). They did extensive work for the then Duke in the North West.
Source: Lecture on Paley and Austin to the Victorian Society, 22 February 2011 by Dr Geoff Brandwood. (I am also indebted to him for the final point above).
Restoration: Westham (1876); Willingdon (1878); Wilmington (1883)
William Palmer (1673-1739) was born and apprenticed in London and after a period of working for others had his own workshop by 1710. As well as being a statuary, he was a mason, most notably for Lincoln’s Inn. His memorials, some of which are quite large, are widely spread across England, indicating that he enjoyed a good reputation.
Memorials: Barcombe (attr); Horsted Keynes; Hurstpierpoint, – Holy Trinity (attr); Wadhurst; Wivelsfield (attr); Worth (attr)
William Pape (1852-1937) was a glass merchant, whose firm was founded in Leeds in 1876; by 1881 he employed 8 workers. In 1901 he was in addition a glass stainer and the firm flourished, for by 1911 Pape was living at Bramhope, a prosperous outer suburb of Leeds, though he described himself purely as a ‘window glass dealer’. This apparent withdrawal from the artistic side of the business did not prevent it from continuing to produce stained glass in quantity. It was still listed as an independent entity in 1935 and a window by them in St George, Leeds of 1938 shows the company was still in existence, even though Pape had died the previous year so it was clearly in different ownership. It is likely that this was another Leeds firm of glass-makers, Kayll and Reed, a prolific producer of glass in the North, for by 1939 they were sharing premises; though most active in the 1920s and 1930s, Kayll and Reed were still in existence as late as 1973, when they were said specifically to incorporate the business of William Pape. However, the two companies had been run as separate entities for much of the intervening period, as a window in St Martin, Chapeltown Road, Leeds dated 1956 by Pape’s alone shows.
Glass: Ashurst; Upper Beeding
M M Parker
Mordaunt Mauleverer Parker (1891-1970) was for many years lay reader at St George, Broad Oak, as a small memorial to him in that church records. He was the son of a surgeon and trained as a naval architect. Directories show him living in north London until at least 1953, whilst by 1958 he was living in Heathfield. He was also active as a painter and painted landscapes including a series of Dover castle in shades of blue and gray.
Painting: Heathfield – St George Broad Oak
George Measures Parlby (1857-1944) worked initially for J Powell and Sons (JP – see this section below), including a spell from 1884 as a principal designer. Thereafter he continued to produce designs for them on a freelance basis until 1916, though always in a conservative style. He also designed for Cox, Son and Buckley and by 1894 had become chief designer for Curtis, Ward and Hughes (see Ward and Hughes). He worked also as a painter, though his involvement in the wall paintings at St Paul, Brighton is open to doubt. He became Master of the Art Workers Guild in 1942 and died at Hammersmith, where he had been working.
Glass: Aldingbourne (JP); Fairwarp (JP); Lindfield: Newtimber; Northchapel (JP); Rotherfield (JP)
Painting: Brighton and Hove, – St Paul (attr)
Fitting: Hunston, reredos (JP)
Matthew Parrington (1807-82) was a man of many parts. He was born in Yorkshire and graduated from Cambridge in 1830, becoming canon of Chichester, principal of Bishop Otter College, Chichester and successively rector of Fishbourne and vicar of Felpham. He was much interested in matters of church building and fittings and in 1860 he signed the plans for the restoration of St Nicolas, Portslade that were submitted to the ICBS as ‘a member of the Architectural Committee, though it is open to doubt how far he was involved in the actual restoration in 1868. The committee was presumably a diocesan body and since he has no known link with that church, he may have signed the papers for a restoration or similar in such a capacity. He also belonged to the small group of woodworking clerics in Sussex and it is probable that the desk known to have been at Eastdean (E) is not the only such work he did. The design for a window at Snodland church, Kent, stated to have been made by W G Taylor (see under M O’Connor) to the Rev Matthew Parrington’s design in 1883 can hardly be by anyone else, although he had died the year before.
Restored: Portslade, – St Nicolas (1868 – doubtful)
Fitting: Eastdean (E), panels on reading desk (formerly).
J L Parsons Parsons and Sons
John Latter Parsons (1805/06-85) was a builder and antiquarian, who was probably the son of Latter Parsons (see immediately below), though this cannot as yet be proved – the dates would allow them to be father and son, but by 1841 the younger man seems to have been in business for himself and he features separately in LBPB for 1847. In 1871 his yard and home were in Eastgate, Lewes and he was also a landowner, so it is unsurprising that at his death he left over £23,000. He worked on churches as a mason, including the restoration of Denton (1866), and as an architect, in which capacity he designed the Congregational Church at Uckfield (BN 13 p454), the School of Science and Art at Lewes (BN 23 p151) and a cemetery at East Grinstead (B 25 p735). Also stated to have been responsible for the last was C Parsons, who might be assumed to be one of the ‘sons’ of what became Parsons and Sons, especially since in 1851 and 1867 (KD) J L and C Parsons are listed at the same address of Eastgate Wharf. However, J L Parsons is not recorded in any census as having had a son with this initial, so ‘C Parsons’ may have been the otherwise unidentified son of Latter Parsons (see immediately below) known to have assisted him in the later part of his life and thus conceivably J L Parsons’s brother.
Restored: Folkington (1870 – probable); Hartfield (1865-66 – as Parsons and Sons); Iford (1864-65 – as C Parsons and Co of Lewes, but doubtless the same); Lewes, Southover (1847 – with B Ferrey)
L Parsons C Parsons Martin
Latter Parsons (1772-1848) was a mason and statuary, who came of a long line of such craftsmen who had been settled in Lewes since the C17. The family business was acquired from the Morris family, of whom J Morris was a leading mason of the town – in PD in 1823-24 it is called Latter Parsons and PB 1837 gives the owner only as Latter Parsons. His memorials were mostly modest, but were well regarded and there are likely to be others that are unsigned. Some of his monuments are also signed by C Parsons, who is assumed to have been his son since most such monuments date from late in his career. However, one at East Blatchington is signed by both as early as 1808, suggesting either that C Parsons was not a son or that there were more than one person of the name. A single monument at Lindfield of 1830 may originally have been signed Martin and Parsons (now it reads ‘Martin’ only), but nothing further is known of Martin. According to KD/1845 the business was in East Street, Lewes. The relationship between Latter Parsons and John Latter Parsons (see immediately above) has not been established completely, but was clearly close, probably even father and son. There do, however, seem to have been two distinct businesses, of which the masons survived into the later C20 as Bridgeman Ltd at the same address in East Street.
Memorials: Beckley; Burwash; Cowfold (4); East Blatchington (with C Parsons); Framfield (3); Hamsey; Herstmonceux; Hurstpierpoint; Iford; Lewes, – St John Baptist, Southover; Lindfield; Mayfield; Newhaven; Salehurst; Shermanbury; Sompting; Upper Dicker; Wilmington
L H Parsons
Leslie Harry Parsons was a partner in the practice of C R B Godman and C J Kay of Horsham from c1962 and references to him in that position continue until 1983. He is said to have been Diocesan Architect.
Repaired: Itchingfield (1962); Patcham (1970); Petworth (1953 – attr); Slinfold (1974-75); Southwater (1974-75)
Fitting: Findon, reredos
Patent Marble Works
The company was founded in 1809 and appears to have had two yards in Westminster. It reached its peak in the 1830s, especially if, as is likely, it is the same firm as the Westminster Marble Company which produced a tablet dated 1830 at Ettington, Warwickshire. However, it continued well after that time and in 1851 it was owned by one Thomas Hartley, who was probably responsible for the last known memorial by the company dating from 1853. Curiously, at no point during its existence does it appear in any directory under this rather pretentious name and it is likely that it was more widely known by the name of one or more owner, now lost, though in this regard no reference to Thomas Hartley has been found. Most of the company’s production consisted of unambitious marble tablets.
Memorial: Crawley, – St John Baptist; Eastbourne, – St Mary; Horsted Keynes
Jane Patterson (b1955) trained as a painter at the Slade School, where she later taught before taking up glassmaking. More recently, she has taught at West Dean College.and continues to paint.
Only the surname of the designer in 1887 of the reredos of Holy Trinity, Worthing has been recorded. He is said to have come from the town, but nothing else is known.
Designed: Worthing, – Holy Trinity, reredos
Joseph Peacock (1821-93) was born in or outside Godalming, Surrey and by 1841 was living in Worthing, articled to C Hide, in whose house he was living. Ten years later he had moved to Bedford Row, London and was sharing an address with one David Brandon, described as an architect. It is hard to believe this was not D Brandon, though the age given in 1851 applies to someone born in c1819 and not 1813 as generally given for David Brandon. Peacock spent the rest of his life in Bloomsbury, where he also practised and became surveyor for various railway companies and for estates in London, particularly in Kensington. He designed churches mainly there and in Derby (a major railway centre). He was favoured by the Low Church party and Goodhart-Rendel included him amongst the ‘rogues’ because of the often willful detailing of his earlier work. Much of his later work is more conventional.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Worthing, – St Andrew, West Tarring (1853 – probably)
W Pearce Ltd
This was a Birmingham firm which was founded by William Pearce by 1892, the date of its earliest known glass. It continued until at least 1938, the date of its latest recorded window and though some at Tanworth-in-Arden, Warwickshire bears the date 1946, this could have been added to the earlier work by the company to be found there. Much of the company’s glass is to be found in Wales and business was substantial enough to support its own designer from around 1920, Ephraim Cutler, whose name appears in the company’s title from 1921, though little is known of him. There was at least one man of the name in Birmingham who was involved in the glass trade, but his dates were 1844-1910 so he died far too early and he had no son or grandson named Ephraim. Nevertheless, it is likely that there was a link.
F L Pearson
Frank Loughborough Pearson (1864-1947) was the only son of J L Pearson (see immediately below). After an early upbringing on the Isle of Man following his mother’s death, he was educated at Winchester and joined his father’s office in 1881. There he encountered W D Caröe, who was his father’s assistant. He was admitted as a partner in 1890 and completed several of his father’s works after his death. He lived in Oxfordshire but his practice was based in London. Unlike his father he used styles other than gothic.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Completed: Brighton and Hove, – All Saints, Hove (1897-1901)
J L Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson (1817-97) was the son of a painter and was born in Brussels. The family returned fairly soon to Durham where he was a pupil of Ignatius Bonomi (1787-1870), the county surveyor and himself worked on Durham cathedral. In 1842 he moved to London and worked for a short time in the offices of both A Salvin and Philip Hardwick (1792-1870), before going into independent practice in 1844. Almost exclusively he designed and restored churches, becoming one of the most successful ecclesiastical architects of his age; he is said to have worked on about 210 projects in England alone. Much of his early work is in the North and from the first attracted the approval of the Ecclesiologists. His personal interpretation of C13 and C14 gothic, influenced by French examples he had seen at first hand, had a sureness of proportion and an elegance with few equals and this contributed to his being one of the first Victorian architects to be taken with greater seriousness in more modern times. His interest in French architecture showed itself particularly in his major projects such as Truro cathedral and for related reasons he made more use than most contemporaries of vaulting and other forms of stone roofs. Despite his liking for vaulting and other expensive features, Pearson was well able to design churches on a more modest budget which retain many of the virtues associated with him. In Hove are both ‘cheap’ and ‘expensive’ churches in the form of St Barnabas and All Saints. Though less well known than some other architects of the age, Pearson was highly respected and had a number of pupils, including W D Caröe. He was elected first an Associate of the RA and then a full member, as well as being buried in Westminster Abbey, of which he had been surveyor.
Lit: C Howard and S Taylor: The Church and Chapel Interiors of John Loughborough Pearson, 2016; A Quiney: John Loughborough Pearson, 1979
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – All Saints, Hove (1889-1901); – St Barnabas (1881-82); Hastings, – St Matthew (1884)
Fitting: Lewes, – St Michael, High Street, reredos
Restored: Arundel (c1879); Isfield (1875-76); Lewes, – St Michael, High Street (1884 – doubtful); Shipley (1889-93)
The name of Thomas Pearson and the date 1774 for the work at Glynde are given in Sir Thomas Kendrick’s index. No one of the precise name is known and Elleray (2004) states that there was some glass at Glynde by W Peckitt (see immediately below). Conceivably therefore, ‘Pearson’ is a misreading, though it seems an unlikely one, particularly as the first names are also different. More plausibly, especially as the glass at Glynde is heraldic, the first name may be an error for James Pearson (c1740-1838), who was known as a designer of heraldic glass – there is some in the Ely Stained Glass Museum. He was born in Dublin and trained in London. He also painted some glass with figures, but by the end of his long life his style of enamelled glass had long fallen out of fashion.
William Peckitt (1731-95) was a stained glass maker of York, who was in business there by 1751. It is likely that he was self-taught and he continued to experiment with various techniques for the rest of his life and took out a ;patent for his techniques of manufacturing coloured glass. In York he did much restoration work on the mediaeval glass of the Minster. Elsewhere, the circumstances of his time meant that the greater part of his output was heraldic and the hall of Gray’s Inn, London contains some his finest work of this kind to survive. However, although his work was by no means confined to parish churches, he designed windows for several cathedrals, as well as working for Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill. Much of his glass, both pictorial and heraldic, fell a victim to later changes of taste, but in his lifetime he was the most celebrated artist in stained artist in the land, who did much to revive its use and whose work was distributed widely.
Glass: Glynde (possibly – see under T Pearson, immediately above)
Frederick William Peel (1858-1910) was a pupil of Edwin Thomas Hall (1851-1923), in whose office he then worked. By 1901 he was living in Addison Road, Bedford Park, Chiswick, which belonged to Bedford Park, Chiswick, of which he became resident architect. He also wrote at least one book of local history, about Hogarth’s house in Chiswick.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Sutton (nd)
James Peerless (1785/86-1855) was described as a carpenter when he repewed Jevington church, but in 1841 and 1851 what must be the same man there gave his trade as wheelwright. He had a sizeable family, of which at least one son, Peter Peerless, was also a wheelwright. James was a man of property, who is listed in PB 1837.
Repaired: Jevington (1844)
E Peirce E Pierce
Edward Peirce was a statuary of Deptford, who can be traced between 1777 and 1790. He worked widely in the south east and much of his decoration is in the idiom of Robert Adam. The first spelling of the name is to be found on the memorial he did at Frant, though Roscoe prefers the more conventional ‘Pierce’.
Memorials: East Grinstead, – St Swithun; East Hoathly; Frant
The only record of this man is his signature on an application to the ICBS in connection with work at Westhampnett church, without stating a first name or even initial. He signs along with W Brooks, a surveyor, and was probably a builder. In 1841 there was a Joseph Pelham, a bricklayer of Boxgrove (1791-1844?), who is quite likely to be the right one in view of his trade and the proximity of the two places.
Repaired: Westhampnett (1831-32)
J W Penfold
John Wornham (also found as Warnham but spelled this way at his baptism and in the grant of probate relating to his estate) Penfold (1828-1909) was born at Haslemere Surrey and became a pupil of T T Bury. After working as an assistant for Bury and William Burn (1789-1870), designer of country houses, Penfold started his own practice in 1854 in London, working also as a surveyor and arbitrator. During this early period he designed at least one office building in London. He lived there and at Haslemere, where he developed much of the town, designing many houses. Probably as a consequence he left over £62,000. He is, however, best known for designing the hexagonal pillar box that is often called after him, which was first produced in 1866 and of which some remain in use.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Rogate (1874-75)
Ernest Penwarden worked for J Powell and Sons (see this section below) as a designer between the 1890s and the 1930s. His work clearly shows the influence of H Holiday, though it becomes increasingly formulaic with the passage of time.
Glass: Bepton; Berwick; Bexhill, – St Stephen, Woodsgate Park; Bishopstone; Brighton and Hove, – St Philip, Aldrington; Burwash Weald; Chailey – St Peter; Climping; Coleman’s Hatch; Cowfold; Fairwarp; Felpham (attr); Forest Row; Framfield; Hastings, – All Saints; – St Helen, Ore (new); Henfield: Hunston; Iford; Lower Beeding; Mid Lavant; Nutley; Ringmer; Rudgwick; Stedham; Twineham; Uckfield; Waldron; West Itchenor (lost); Westham (attr)
Opus sectile work and mosaics: Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common – reredos; Brighton and Hove, – St Patrick, Hove
W Pepper senior
William Pepper (1806-1887) was born in Folkestone, Kent and was living in Brighton by 1830 when his son William (see immediately below) was born there. The earliest reference to him in business there is in 1841 when he was a sculptor, with an address in Western Road, the first of several in the town. His choice of Brighton may have been determined by the fact that his wife came from there. Pepper exhibited several times at the RA and was still living in the town at his death.
Memorials: Bramber (2); Brighton, – All Saints, Patcham (probably – given to ‘W Pepper’); St Andrew, Hove (old); – St Nicholas (2); – St Peter
W R Pepper junior
William Reynolds Pepper (1830-1919) was the son of William Pepper senior (see immediately above) and entered the RA Schools in 1852. He was to have a varied career, as documented by the census records. In 1861 he had moved to Worth, where his wife originated, and described himself as a sculptor and victualler – he last exhibited at the RA in 1868. By 1871, though still in Worth, he had become simply an innkeeper. In 1881 after a move to East Grinstead, his artistic interests were once more to the fore and he called himself an artist and portrait painter. He was in the same place in 1891, but had now become a journalist and author as well as an artist. After a short spell in Strood, Kent he was living in West Ham, described as a portrait and animal painter, in 1901 and again in 1911 when he described himself as an old age pensioner. He spent the rest of his life there – his death was registered in Plaistow, East London nearby.
Memorial: Brighton, – St George
H M Pett
Harold Milburn Pett (1883-1966) was a pupil of F T Cawthorn and later assistant to J G Gibbons. He worked for Brighton Corporation and had wide contacts among architects in the town – J L Denman was one of those who nominated him for FRIBA. He was Chichester Diocesan Surveyor, working extensively on churches and parsonages. Much of his work consisted of introducing new standards of comfort into churches, e g heating and lighting systems. The churches below are those on which he worked more obviously and can only be a fraction of the total. He lived in Hove.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Altered, improved and extended: Ardingly (1927); Balcombe (1948-50); Brighton and Hove, – St Agnes (nd – doubtful); – St Andrew, Hove (old) (1927); – St Leonard, Aldrington (1931); – St Patrick, Hove (1927); Donnington (1934); Eastbourne, – St Michael (1936-38); Henfield (1927); Jevington (1935); Middleton (1927-28); Newick (1948); Portslade (1934); Rodmell (1930-31); Rustington (1933)
J B Philip
John Birnie Philip (1824-75) was a Londoner, who studied at the Government School of Design under John Rogers Herbert RA (1810-90), a painter, and moved with him when Herbert set up his own school. Herbert introduced him to A W Pugin (see this section below), for whom he worked on the Palace of Westminster, before setting up his own business. He carried out architectural carving as well as figurative work, notably for Sir George G Scott, in particular on the new Foreign Office building and the Albert Memorial. He is also known to have restored mediaeval stone-caving and produced a number of public statues in various English cities.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Martin, terra cotta; – St Nicholas, memorial and font cover
Harry Raines Phillips (1911-76) was born in London and commenced the study of carving about 1927 as an apprentice at Faith Craft, where he was trained by W Wheeler. From there he moved around 1932-33 to Dartington Hall. For a short time he taught at Blundell’s School nearby and immediately after World War II was for a short time a freelance artist until in 1949 he joined Leeds College of Art, where he taught for the remainder of his career. He became known for his public sculptures and portrait heads and exhibited regularly at the RA. He spent his last years in Lewes.
My thanks to Fr Stephen Keeble for information about Phillips’s early years
Sculpture: Lewes, – St Michael, figure
E J Physick
Edward James Physick (1829-1906) was the grandson of E W Physick (see immediately below) and followed in the family occupation. He entered the RA Schools in 1847 and exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851, as well as at the RA. He ceased to exhibit at the latter after 1863, though his last known work dates from 1899. He produced many memorials and is said to have devised the use of inlaid lead letters in tombs, a favourite Victorian practice.
Memorial: East Hoathly
E W Physick
Edward William Physick (c1774-1862) was one of a large family of sculptors of Cornish ancestry who were active in London between c1769 and 1906. The circumstances of his training are not known, but he was exhibiting at the RA by 1810 and continued until 1842. He was best known for his portrait busts, but also made memorials in some quantity.
Memorials: Frant (2)
Robert Physick (1815-1865) was the was the son of E W Physick (see immediately above) and like his two brothers, followed his father in becoming a sculptor. He trained at the RA Schools from 1837.
See Edward Peirce (above).
M W Pierce
Martin Wynn Pierce (b1950) was born in Worcester and trained initially as a furniture maker and carver. In 1973 he moved to Lewes and set up as a woodcarver. His particular love from an early stage has been carving insects and birds, as his lectern at Wartling in particular shows. In 1980 he moved to Los Angeles, where he remains active as a woodcarver, and in addition works in wax. He also designs furniture to order.
(Information from Anne Pierce)
Carved: Ringmer, Lectern; Wartling, lectern
Daniel Pinder (found also as Pindar) (1734/35-1820) was a mason in Blackfriars in 1761 and undertook commissions for several city companies. He was City Mason from 1782 to 1803 and with his partner William Norris prospered. He designed and made only a few memorials.
Memorial: Horsted Keynes
John Egerton Christmas Piper (1903-92) was the son of a prosperous solicitor to whom he was initially articled. Only after he died could Piper take up the study of art and study at the Royal College of Art. He had been interested in landscape and topography from an early age, but in the 1930s he took up abstract art under the influence of Picasso and Braque, before reverting to landscapes in accordance with his wish to seek ‘nourishment by subject’. In World War II he became famous for his pictures of bombed buildings, but his later work found less critical favour as it remained representational, though highly popular more generally. During this period, he became more closely involved with stained glass making, which he had studied with J E Nuttgens, as well as designing stage sets and ceramics. He also increased the amount of writing he did, especially the Shell Guides, with which he had been involved since meeting John Betjeman in 1936, one of the major literary and artistic figures of his time with whom he was connected. By contrast with his paintings, most of his glass remained abstract. It was generally made in collaboration with P Reyntiens and later D Wasley and is found in many major churches, including Coventry cathedral and St Margaret’s, Westminster.
Lit: DNB; NAL Information file: Obit: The Times, 30 June 1992
Glass: West Firle
William Pistell (1773/78-1845) was a marble cutter working in the area around Fitzroy Square, London and though in 1841 he appears under the name of Pestell, there can be no reasonable doubt about his identity as the district and the occupation are identical. He was associated with J Flaxman and Sir R Westmacott in the transport and exhibition of the Elgin marbles after they reached London in 1816. This might suggest that he was primarily active on the practical side, but he was also a maker of memorials, both simple tablets and more elaborate ones with figures.
Memorial: East Grinstead, – St Swithun
R W Pite
Robert William Pite (1893-1977) was the son of William Alfred Pite (1860-1949), whose pupil he was. In 1919 father and son became partners, together with the father’s former assistant, Hubert Moore Fairweather (1881-1950), as Pite, Son and Fairweather. The father retired in 1937, but the practice lasted until about 1958 though it was renamed George, Trew, Dunn. This suggests that R W Pite had severed his connections with the practice, for he remained professionally active; in 1964 he was in practice with the successors of Murray, Delves and Atkins (see W H and J D Murray) (ICBS). Though of Scottish ancestry, his family had links with Haslemere, Surrey.
Extended/repaired: Eastbourne, – All Souls (1963); Linchmere (1957)
John Plowman senior (1772/73-1843) was an architect of Oxford, who designed mainly churches and parsonages, mostly in the city or nearby. On at least one occasion he collaborated with H J Underwood. In 1840 a commission to rebuild the rectory at Beckley probably led to an abortive plan by himself and J Elliott to rebuild the church as well. It is not known how he knew Elliott. He had a son of the same name who was also an architect, whose earliest known building dates from 1835, and who worked mostly in the Oxford area on both churches and schools. His understanding of the gothic style was considerably greater than that of his father.
Designed: Beckley (1840 – design for rebuilding church – not carried out)
Rowland Plumbe (1838-1919) was a pupil of Nockalls Johnson Cottingham (1823-54) and worked for a practice called Cooper and Beck, whilst studying at the Architectural Association. He then spent two years in the USA before starting his own practice in Fitzroy Square, London. He held two District Surveyorships and designed schools, hospitals (including ones at Bexhill and Eastbourne), country houses and churches. He also designed blocks of flats for artisans in both St Marylebone and Paddington. Despite his large practice, he was not knighted as has been suggested; there may be confusion with his friend R W Edis. From 1903 to 1908 his partner was Frank M Harvey, previously his assistant for 21 years, and they were surveyors to the London Hospital, a position previously held by Plumbe alone. He had two later partners, C Fleming-Williams and J C S Mummery; but as with Harvey, neither of these can be identified further with any certainty.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 116 p381; RIBAJ 26 pp140-41
Designed: Loxwood (1898-1900)
Ian Pocklington (b1961) trained at Great Yarmouth College of Art and Design and North Staffordshire Polytechnic before setting up his own business at Reepham, Norfolk in 1984. He produces both conventional glass sculpture and stained glass, much of the latter secular in nature, as well as working with ceramics. He also undertakes restoration work.
Thomas Pokyll, Puckle or Pukyll may have been of Kentish origin, but the first documentary reference to him is to be found in Southover, Lewes in 1530. During the following decade he was among the masons who undertook minor works and repairs to the adjacent Lewes priory. Probably while still working in this capacity, in 1536 he contracted to build the tower of Bolney church and it is likely that he designed it. Four years later, after the dissolution of the priory, he appears again, working under the King’s master mason on Camber castle near Rye. There is no later reference, though there were still Pockylls to be found in Southover in 1609.
Lit: G Byng: The Construction of the Tower at Bolney, SAC 151 (2013) pp101-13
Built/designed: Bolney (1536-38)
F W Pomeroy
Frederick William Pomeroy (1856-1924) was the son of a craftsman and he produced much architectural carving, even in his later life. Buildings for which he produced sculpture included the city or town halls of Sheffield, Lancaster, Cardiff and Belfast and he also produced full-scale statues. He studied under the French sculptor Jules Dalou (1838-1902), who taught in London after 1870, and at the RA Schools. Subsequently he went to Paris and Italy. One of the architects for whom he produced sculpture was J D Sedding and he was associated with the so-called New Sculpture, which included late Victorian sculptors like Alfred Gilbert (1854-1934). Some of his church fittings are in the renaissance style, an early instance of the new-found favour of the style in High Church circles. Over a number of church monuments, he collaborated with artists such as H Wilson and N Hitch, the latter of whom is known to have produced the subsidiary carving whilst Pomeroy was responsible for the effigy. In addition, he produced more academic work and late in life became a Royal Academician; he was also a member of the Art Workers Guild.
Fitting: Colgate, reredos
Poole and Son Field, Poole and Sons
This stonemason’s firm is first found in Great Smith Street, Westminster as Henry Poole (PD 1839). It remained at this address after 1859, when it had become Henry Poole and Son (KD/L) and produced both fittings and monuments, as well as secular works. Though he cannot be fully identified, the Henry Poole who produced the marble reredos at Hinton Waldrist, Berkshire in 1869 is highly likely to be identical with the founder. The company also became stonemasons to Westminster abbey, conveniently close, and in this capacity worked on the new reredos by Sir George G Scott from 1866. They also worked for Scott in connection with his restoration of the chapter house of the abbey and elsewhere. By 1876 (ibid) the firm had moved to premises at 43 Johnson Street, Millbank. In the same year Field, Poole and Sons is also listed at this address and this is almost certainly the consequence of a merger with the long established firm of William Field of Parliament Street, Westminster; this merger had in fact taken place by 1873, when the merged company is stated to have made the reredos at Rotherfield, but there is no later reference to it under this name in directories and by 1878 it was once more known as Poole and Sons, though still in Johnson Street. In the following year they proudly announced their ownership of marble quarries at Ipplepen, Devon and in 1883 were to be found at 32 Smith Square, though this could have been only a showroom. At a later date they had an address in Kennington, though as late as 1894 this was at 70 Millbank. There is no reference in KD/L after 1898.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove – St Leonard, Aldrington, font; Rotherfield, reredos (FP); Sutton, reredos
R J Potter
Robert James Potter (1909-2010) was born in Guildford and trained at the Regent Street Polytechnic, before joining the office of W H R Blacking in 1935. After war service in India, he was Blacking’s partner from 1946 to 1955, concentrating increasingly on church restorations, as well as designing new ones. In 1955 he went into partnership with Richard Hare in Salisbury, but in 1967 the renamed Brandt, Potter Hare Partnership transferred to Southampton, though even after this much of their work on churches was in Wiltshire and other western counties. From 1957-85 he was surveyor of Chichester cathedral, where he established the successful Cathedral Works Organisation and oversaw the remarkable artistic innovations associated with Dean Walter Hussey. He was also Surveyor of St Paul’s and did extensive work at Oxford on both University buildings and various colleges. He was made an OBE in 1993.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Times 11 January 2011; RIBAJ February 2011 p14
Altered: West Itchenor (1964)
T Potter and Co
Thomas Potter and Co, described as engineers and smiths, can be found in directories between 1876 and 1909. However, there is good evidence that the firm was established much earlier and rapidly became a major force in the production of Victorian ecclesiastical ironwork; T Potter made a brass lectern designed by Nockalls Johnson Cottingham (1823-54) for Hereford cathedral which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Catalogue p9 item 63) and what must be the same company designed lighting for the new church by Sir George G Scott at Ridgmont, Bedfordshire (completed 1854) and continued to work for him at a later date. The company also enjoyed royal favour for they made the doors and outer gates of A J Humbert‘s royal mausoleum at Frogmore, Berkshire (complete by 1871). As well as Scott the company worked for other major architects of the period including ironwork for All Saints, Margaret Street to W Butterfield‘s design, as well as screens for G E Street, at the Law Courts in London, for churches he had restored and his completion of Bristol cathedral. In the case of All Saints the company’s address is given as South Moulton Street thus confirming its identity, since directories give one of their addresses as 44 South Moulton Street. In addition to South Moulton Street, the company’s works were at Putney Bridge Wharf with further premises from about 1904 in Victoria Street.
Fitting: Hastings, – St Matthew, lectern
C C Powell
Christopher Charles Powell (1876-1955) was the son of another Charles (born 1852 in Cambridge), who with his brother William Oliver Powell (1850-1903) had established a firm in Lincoln with the initial intention of producing murals for churches, which was frequently patronised by G F Bodley. The firm branched into stained glass and in c1901 Charles senior opened a branch in London, latterly at Archway; in 1911 he was living not far away in Hornsey. Christopher Charles worked with him, starting in about 1892, so the father is likely to have been mainly responsible for training his son. Despite the London addresses much of their identified glass is to be found in Lincolnshire churches, suggesting that it was marketed primarily through the business there. They were also associated with other glass makers, including C E Kempe, and C C Powell himself produced designs in the 1950s for the firm of Luxford Studios (see under G W Luxford).
Glass: Horsham, – St Mary; Peasmarsh; Rogate; Shermanbury
C E Powell
Charles Edward Powell (1851-1934) was a pupil of Sir George G Scott, to whom he is said to have been related. He then shared offices in Chancery Lane, London with J Medland and R Nevill – also Scott’s pupils – and worked on occasion with both, though there may never have been a formal partnership. By 1893 he was working primarily in Eastbourne, though he retained a London address at Temple Avenue EC (KD/L) until 1922, and is buried at Arlington. Though always chiefly an architect, he produced a number of designs for stained glass as well as that listed below.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Philip (1903 and 1932 – dem)
Restored: Arlington (1892-94); Mayfield (1899); Rotherfield (1888-93)
D J Powell
Dunstan John Powell (1861-1932) was the son of J H Powell (see this section below) and thus grandson of A W N Pugin (see this section below), as well as great nephew of J Hardman junior, along with Pugin the effective founder of the company of J Hardman and Co. D J Powell himself was trained by his father and became the chief designer of the company in the late C19 and early C20. He was best known for his sometimes quite comprehensive decorative schemes.
Decorative scheme: Hastings, – Christ Church, Blacklands
E T Powell
Edward Turner Powell (1859-1937) was articled to Sir Alexander Rose Stenning (1846-1928) and spent three years in his office, before going into independent practice from 1885 in Queen Anne’s Gate, Westminster. Much of his work is in the Arts and Crafts style. The greater part of this consisted of houses, including many in Surrey and Mid-Sussex, though he also designed buildings abroad; on at least one occasion he worked on a house in Buenos Aires with Walter Bassett-Smith (see W Bassett-Smith). His known connections with Sussex seem to have been slight, except that he died at Seaford.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Extended: Bolney (1906)
Hugh Barnaby Powell (1910-1993) was a member of the family that owned J Powell and Sons (see immediately below), but apart from a brief period in his youth, never worked for them, preferring to be independent. He studied at Chelsea Art School and from 1952 went into partnership with C J Edwards in the latter’s studio, though as well as glass, he is known to have produced statues. Around 1955 he moved to the Glass House (see under Lowndes and Drury) and remained in London unril 1959, the latest date he is recorded at a London address. Around that time he moved to Alton, Hampshire and then to Bath. Finally, he lived in Dorset, though he died at Southampton.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – Holy Cross, South Woodingdean; Burgess Hill, – St Edward; Eridge Green; Mountfield; Streat
J Powell and Sons
James Powell (1774-1840) was originally a wine merchant who in 1834 bought a firm of glass-makers, which had been at Whitefriars, East London since around 1700. After he died it continued in the family, whose later members included Harry James (1853-1922) and James Crofts Powell (1847-1914). Though the firm continued to make domestic glassware, after 1844 they became without doubt the most prolific of the leading British makers of stained glass. The company’s first products were painted quarries that met the approval of the Ecclesiologists as an inexpensive means of glazing church windows. This reflected the company’s early interest in the manufacture of raw glass, made to the specification of Charles Winston and widely sold. They also became involved during the 1840s in the design and manufacture of finished windows. Initially these consisted mostly of medallions with figures set in patterned glass, which were advantageous for smaller parishes as they cost less. However, they offered fewer artistic opportunities by comparison with the products of the companies that emerged in the later 1850s such as Clayton and Bell. In an attempt to remedy this the company employed established artists such as Sir E Burne-Jones (briefly chief designer) and then H Holiday who held the position for almost 30 years until 1891, apart from a brief period of ill-health when H E Wooldridge took over. Many of the records of the company have survived and although sometimes frustratingly brief and incomplete, it has been possible to assemble a list of most designers (though not the designer of every window, as is apparent from the list that follows). By the 1880s there was a group of established designers in addition to Holiday, many of whom lasted well into the C20, such as E Penwarden and C Hardgrave. By the 1890s the company was employing its first woman designer, Ada Currey. Our knowledge of these designers derives very largely from the researches of Dennis Hadley, now available on line. Not all them can be satisfactorily identified, for the company seems not to have publicised the names of its designers, especially those who were also employees and for some only a surname is recorded. However, the following are known to have designed work for Sussex parish churches at some point during the company’s history (the immediate source of this information is in almost all cases Hadley’s researches):
W Aikman (WA)
E L Armitage (ELA)
A Bell (AB)
— Bladon (Bl)
J W Brown (JWB)
H Burrow (HB)
H Casolani HC)
W A Chase (WAC)
A F Coakes (AFC)
H Cole (HC)
A Currey (AC)
— van Daele (vD)
— Drake (Dr)
— Duthie (Du)
C J Edwards (CJE)
A F Erridge (AFE)
P Fourmaintraux (PF)
— Fripps (F)
C Hardgrave (CH)
H S Hodges (HSH)
J H Hogan (JHH)
E Hogwood (EH),
H Holiday (HH)
G Hutchinson (GH)
F H Jackson (FHJ)
Sir T G Jackson (TGJ)
H W Lonsdale (HWL)
M Lowndes (see under Lowndes and Drury – ML)
F Mann (FM)
H S Marks (HSM)
— Miller (Mi)
— Moberly (Mo)
R Moore (RM)
J E Nuttgens (JEN)
A A Orr (AAO)
G Parlby (see this section above – GP)
E Penwarden (see this section above – EP)
C E Powell (see this section above – CEP)
— Read (R) [possibly the same as G Wooliscroft-Rhead]
— Sharp (Sh)
H J Stammers (HJS)
— Timson (T)
C Whall (CW)
H E Wooldridge (HEW)
G Wooliscroft-Rhead (GWR)
All the above produced designs, whether they were employees or freelance designers. In addition, the firm accepted commissions to make glass for established architects and artists. An early instance was Sir T G Jackson , who was a friend of J C Powell, followed by S Clarke junior; others included H W Lonsdale and C E Powell, who was not related. The company’s work went through several marked phases. From the late 1860s it moved away from the bright colours of the medallions it had initially favoured and after Holiday’s departure as chief designer in 1891, the lack of a high-grade successor, combined with rapid further growth in business, led to a clear fall in quality. Many windows by lesser designers such as J W Brown, E Penwarden and F Mann were routine with dull colouring and formulaic design, though they occasionally surpassed themselves. This situation changed little before the 1920s when J H Hogan became chief designer and managing director and brought new life to the company, whose best known work at this time was the glass for Liverpool cathedral. The steady income from this and from increasing commissions from the USA was vital, particularly as an injudicious move in the 1920s to Wealdstone, Middlesex led to financial problems that dogged the company for the rest of its existence, to say nothing of wider problems in the economy. Even before Hogan died in 1948, E L Armitage and C J Edwards, a former assistant of Hogan, had assumed much of the design work and retained their leading position for most of the 1950s. Following World War II this was a period of peak demand, and as after World War I, the company expanded its use of outside designers such as J E Nuttgens. It also maintained its interest in developing new materials and techniques; the best instance in later years of the latter is the work of P Fourmaintraux who mostly in the 1960s produced abstract glass set in thick concrete, known as dalle de verre. Other designers at around the same time continued in a more conventional manner such as R Moore and E L Armitage. The company ceased manufacturing stained glass in 1973 to concentrate on fine glassware, changing its name to Whitefriars Glass Ltd, but it closed in 1980. As well as glass, they made church fittings of various kinds, especially using mosaic and tiling – its most famous achievement in this area was the mosaics in St Paul’s cathedral.
Glass: Aldingbourne (JWB and GP); Alfriston (CEP, FM and R); Appledram (JHH); Ardingly; Arlington (GWR); Battle (HH and S); Bepton (HH, EP and JHH); Berwick (WA, FM and EP); Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common (ELA); – St Peter (CH); – St Stephen (EP and HSH); Binsted (HH and TGJ); Bishopstone (JWB, AFC and EP); Bodiam; Bognor, – St Mary Magdalene, South Bersted (CH and GWR); Bolney (formerly); Brighton and Hove, St Andrew, Church Road (RM); – St Anne, Burlington Street (RM – destroyed?); – St Martin (HH, HEW and Somers Clarke junior); – St Mary (FM, JHH and R); – Holy Trinity, Ship Street (HH); – St Luke, Queen’s Park (HEW); – St Matthias; – St Patrick; – St Philip (Dr and EP); Burpham (HH, JWB and others); Burwash Weald (EP); Catsfield; Chailey, – St Mary (HH); – St Peter (HH, ELA or RM and EP); Chalvington (R); Chiddingly (HEW); Climping (EP, R and AFE) ; Cocking (FM); Coleman’s Hatch (EP, FM, AAO, JHH, R, AFC and RM); Compton (HH); Cowfold (FM, JHH); Crawley, – St Margaret, Ifield (JWB); – St Peter (PF); Cross-in-Hand; Crowborough, – All Saints; East Chiltington; East Grinstead, – St Swithun (HB); Eastbourne, – All Souls (CH) (destroyed?); – St John Meads (destroyed); – St Michael, Ocklynge; – St Saviour (JWB and FM?) (destroyed); East Lavant (FM); Edburton (AB); Fairwarp (HH, C, EP and GP); Felpham (CH and EP (attr); Findon (CH, AFC and R); Fittleworth (FM); Fletching; Forest Row (EP); Framfield (EP); Frant (JHH); Goring; Handcross (R); Hailsham (HH); Harting (JWB); Hastings, – All Saints (EP); – All Souls (CH); – St Clement (HH); – St Helen, Ore (JWB, FM, R, EP and HSH); Heathfield; Henfield (ML, T and EP); Herstmonceux; Heyshott; Horsham, – St Mary (ELA and __ Blackman); Hunston (CH, EP, GH, F and D); Hurst Green (WAC); Hurstpierpoint; Iford (EP); Kingston by Lewes; Kirdford (HH and GH); Lancing, – St James; Lewes, – All Saints (HH); – St Anne (CH); – St John sub Castro (HH); – St John, Southover (HH, JWB?, HEW and CH); – St Michael (HH, JWB, HSH and FM); – St Thomas (FM); Linch (FM); Lindfield (GP and GH); Lodsworth (HH and JHH); Lower Beeding (EP, HC and GH); Lurgashall; Madehurst (HH – fragments only); Maresfield; Mid Lavant (EP); Newick (JWB, CW, Sh, AC, FM and GWR); Northchapel (GP and EP); North Mundham (CH, FM, Sh; Northiam (HJS); Nuthurst; Nutley (EP, FM, vD and R); Oving (HH); Peasmarsh (FM); Petworth (R); Piddinghoe (HH); Plaistow (Mi); Portslade, – St Nicolas (AFE); Pulborough (JWB); Ringmer; Rodmell (HSM); Rotherfield (GP, AC, JHH and HSH); Rudgwick (EH, EP. AFC and R); Rusper (AC and HH); Rye (JWB, WA, HJS and JHH); Seaford (HC and Mo); Shermanbury; Singleton; Slindon (TGJ); Slinfold (GWH and ELA?); Sompting (HH, CH and HEW); South Malling (HH, CJE? and JWB); Spithurst; Stansted; Staplefield (JEN); Stedham (CH, EP, Bl, HH and FM); Stonegate (JWB and R); Streat (AFE); Sullington (FM); Tarring Neville (JWB); Telscombe (FM); Terwick; Ticehurst (HH (probably) R, and CW); Tidebrook (CJE); Trotton; Twineham (EP); Uckfield (HH, FHJ and EP); Wadhurst (JHH); Waldron (EP and JHH); Warninglid (JHH); Wartling (HH); West Dean (W) (FM (gone) and ELA); Westdean (E) (HH and R); West Firle (HH and JWB); West Hoathly; West Itchenor (ELA and EP (lost)); West Lavington (WA and JHH); Westbourne (HH); Westham (vD and EP (attr); Westhampnett (HH); Wiggonholt; Withyham, – St Michael Wivelsfield (GH); Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene (HH, JWB, FM and GH)
Fittings: Bexhill, – St Mark Little Common, decoration on reredos (EP); Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew, mosaics (FHJ); – St Patrick, Hove, mosaics etc (EP and CW?); Climping, mosaics (Mi); East Hoathly, mosaics (JWB); Eastbourne, – St Saviour, baptistery decoration and mosaics (JWB); Felpham, reredos (Bl); Hastings, – All Souls, reredos; Holtye Common, reredos (HWL); Hunston, reredos (GP); Lewes, – All Saints, reredos; Newick, reredos (JWB?); Roffey, reredos; Slindon, reredos (TGJ); Upper Beeding, reredos (gone); Withyham, mosaics on reredos (CH)
J H Powell
John Hardman Powell (1827-95) was born in Birmingham, the nephew through his mother of John Hardman junior, whose partner he became, and he was unconnected with J Powell and Son (see immediately above). He was the first pupil of A W N Pugin (see this section below) in Ramsgate in 1844 and despite considerable difficulties, prospered and married his daughter. He worked closely with Pugin on the design of both glass and fittings for manufacture by J Hardman and Co and only returned to Birmingham after Pugin died in 1852, when he succeeded him as chief designer. He was instrumental in upholding Pugin’s influence on the company although in his Recollections, Sir George G Scott criticised the decline in the quality of his designs after Pugin died. He moved to London in the 1880s to run the office there and died at Blackheath. Though best known for his glass, he designed other fittings, particularly metalwork throughout his career.
Lit: DNB for Hardman family
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Paul, lectern
Glass: Brighton and Hove (completed Pugin’s glass)
C E Power
Cyril Edward Power (1872-1951) was born in Chelsea and studied architecture. He worked in his youth for the Office (later Ministry) of Works, particularly on designs for the Post Office, and also lectured at University College, London, as well as producing a three-volume work on mediaeval architecture. He is known to have continued designing buildings after service in World War I, but he became increasingly interested in painting and graphics. He moved first to Bury St Edmunds and then to St Albans and it must have been as a consequence of the latter move that he became associated with Faith Craft, though he was never a formal employee. He spent his final years in Kingston upon Thames.
Fitting: East Preston, rood
George Pownall (1808-93) was the pupil of an architect known only by his surname, Maddox. Pownall signs the plans for St Clement, Halton, Hastings with F Wigg, his partner from 1839 at the latest (PD) until about 1855. They were builders, surveyors and architects in London; Pownall was born in Islington. When designing St Clement, Halton they described themselves as architects, though T Catley, a local man, was also involved and the precise responsibilities of each are uncertain. In later life Pownall was architect and surveyor to the Law Fire Office and also surveyor to the Eton College estate, before becoming increasingly involved in arbitration work. He retired in 1884.
Obit: Transactions of the RIBA NS 9 pp 339 and 375
Designed: Hastings, – St Clement, Halton (1839 – dem)
Frederick Preedy (1820-1898) came of a family that included numerous clergy, but his father was a distributor of stamps in Worcestershire. The son trained as an architect and later took up painting, possibly at the instigation of his cousin Henry Styleman le Strange (1815-62), whose best known work is the decoration of the nave roof at Ely cathedral. This new skill led to the design of stained glass and his earliest glass from the early 1850s is to be found in Worcester. It was made by George Rogers (1805-77), a prolific local glassmaker who can be traced in directories of the city as early as 1820, but after a dispute over a window for Worcester cathedral Preedy learned the craft for himself and is the only known Victorian architect who made his own glass, though F Marrable may have painted a window for St Mary Magdalene, Hastings. Preedy was active as an architect in Worcester until he moved to London in 1859 and continued in this capacity in his native area for a considerable time thereafter. Indeed, he is said to have retained some links until his retirement to Croydon. However, specific dates for his work in the west Midlands do not extend as long, for his latest known complete architectural work, the church of St Mary Magdalene, Worcester was started in 1876, though after that he did restore Little Packington, Warwickshire in 1878-79. Glass did, however, form a steadily increasing part of his work; even before his move to London his designs by him were already in demand outside his native area (e g at Stubbings, Berkshire, dated 1854). During his later career in London he both lived and worked in York Place, St Marylebone. As well as his one window in a Sussex parish church, Preedy designed the east one of the chapel at Sackville College, East Grinstead. He made glass for W Butterfield, but as was not infrequent Butterfield appears to have fallen out with him. Preedy’s liking for Old Testament subjects was unusual in his day.
Lit: G Barnes: Frederick Preedy, Architect and Glass Painter, Gloucester, 1984; H Kerney: The Stained Glass of Frederick Preedy, 2001; BAL Biog file
E J Prest
Edward Jenkins Prest (1857-1934), though born in Cornwall, joined Shrigley and Hunt in Lancaster as a draughtsman in 1883 and in 1891 had become a manager. In 1901 he was living in Haverstock Hill, Hampstead and had set himself up as an artist in stained glass with commercial premises in Craven Street, Charing Cross (KD/L). This business may not have been a success, for by 1903 he had given up the Craven Street premises and though listed at Haverstock Hill in KD/L until 1908, in 1907 he is known to have been negotiating with Shrigley and Hunt about a return. In the event he seems to have continued in London, though he is missing from directories until 1915, when he is listed care of the London office of J Hall and Co of Bristol, for whom he did work on occasion. This arrangement lasted until 1924, after which Prest again disappears from directories, possibly because he had retired. When doing the work at Hurst Green, he called himself painter and decorator, showing his interests were wider than just glass.
Glass: Amberley; Burpham
Fitting: Hurst Green, decorative scheme of chancel.
H F Price
Hans Fowler Price (1835-1912) was born in Bristol and was a pupil of Thomas Denville Barry (1815/16-1905), originally of Liverpool but also with an address in Leamington Spa by the 1850s. He started to practice in the new resort of Weston-super-Mare, where he married Jane Baker, the daughter of the solicitor to the main landowner and developer of the town. In consequence, his buildings there, both public and private and in a variety of styles, have determined much of the appearance of the town down to the present. In addition, he restored or extended several churches in Somerset, as well as designing public buildings and nonconformist chapels in the same area. More widely,he planned cemeteries, a skill he had probably learned from Barry, who was a successful practitioner in this field. Such wider links may account for his restorations of two churches in different areas of Sussex. In the case of Cowfold only, Price had a partner, M A E Grosholz, who although the link lasted only a short time, was to be the first of several. Thus there are references between 1883 and 1897 to a second one, Walter Hernaman Wooler (1853-1936), and from c1901 William Jane (b1864), who took over the practice, which by 1914 had become Jane and Fry; Fry was probably Peter George Fry (1875-1925), who also lived and worked in Weston-super-Mare, where he designed at least one church.
Lit: BAL Biog file for Price
Restored: Brede (1867-68); Cowfold (1876-77)
D H S Prince
Dorian H S Prince is named on the church website as architect of the first extension to St Nicholas, Middleton. Although said to have been ARIBA, there is no professional record of him. However, the name is so unusual that it seems likely that he was the the person of the same name who was born in Edmonton, Middlesex in 1914 and according to shipping lists departed for New Zealand in 1951, without a return being recorded. There is also a record of a man of the name being married in Chichester in 1938 which establishes a link to Sussex. However, there is some scope for confusion, since the extension at Middleton is ascribed in other contemporary parish records to C D Smith, who shared the unusual first name of Dorian.
Extended: Middleton (1949 – attr)
G E Pritchett
George Edward Pritchett (1824-1912) was the son of an Essex rector and had a practice in Bishops Stortford from 1849 and by 1856, when he designed some cemetery chapels in Tottenham, also in London. His father had previously taught at Charterhouse school;and sent his son there; Pritchett afterwards became its Architect and Surveyor. In 1861 he was elected ARIBA and then FRIBA within three months. He restored and built many churches in Essex and adjacent counties.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 102 p283
Restored: Cocking (1896)
P E V Pritchett
See under J D Clarke and Partners.
Camillo Procaccini (c1560-1629) was born in Bologna, but as a young man settled in Milan, where his paintings span the period during which mannerism gave way to the baroque. They included both frescoes and easel paintings and are to be found both in the city and other parts of Lombardy.
E A F Prynne
Edward Alfred Fellowes Prynne (1854-1921) was the elder brother of the better known G H F Prynne (see immediately below), with whom he shared a High Anglican upbringing and with whom he sometimes worked. He trained in London and Antwerp, before travelling in Italy and produced portraits and genre paintings in a late Pre-Raphaelite idiom that owes much to Sir E Burne-Jones. He designed stained glass for J Jennings and P Bacon and also decorative schemes for churches. In 1881 he was living by himself near Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, but in 1901 and 1911 he was married and living in Ealing and he died at Brentford in the same area.
Obit: The Builder 122 pp6, 84
Fittings: Arundel (reredos – attr); Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, reredos (painted panels); East Grinstead, – St Mary, Reredos panels; Hadlow Down, painting
G H F Prynne
George Halford Fellowes Prynne (unlike his descendants he did not hyphenate the last two parts of his name) (1853-1927) was the son of a Tractarian vicar in Plymouth, Devon. He spent some years as a frontiersman in the USA, where he had gone as his father could not afford the university education necessary to seek ordination, his earliest wish. After further time in Canada, where he worked in an architect’s office, he returned to Britain in 1875, where he joined the office of G E Street, an acquaintance of his father, as well as attending the RA Schools. He went into practice on his own in 1880 and became a successful designer and restorer of churches. His new churches were largely in the more respectable recently developed suburbs and towns of the era. Many of them display certain mannerisms, including a weakness for triple arches and a liking for polychromy inside, though the last is a feature less frequently found among later Victorian architects. Many of his major churches were never completed, a common situation for church architects of his time. Prynne’s restorations are mostly to be found in his native West Country, particularly in Cornwall. He was also interested in fittings with a liking for polished brass and designed stained glass. Some of this at least was made by P Bacon. He was connected with the ICBS and also became Oxford Diocesan Architect.
Lit: R Sharville: George Fellowes Prynne (1853-1927): a Dedicated Life, ET 42 (June 2010) pp103-20; www.gfp.sharville.org.uk; BAL Biog file
Designed/rebuilt: Bognor, – St Wilfrid (1908); Hadlow Down (1913)
Restored: Arundel (1893)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, reredos; East Grinstead, – St Mary, reredos; Flimwell, screen and other fittings (attr); Ticehurst, altar and screen (latter attr)
A W N Pugin
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52) was the son of Augustus Charles Pugin (1762-1832), an architect of French descent, and a British mother. The son was precociously gifted as a draughtsman and designer and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1835 after intensive study of mediaeval (i e gothic) architecture. Ironically, the suspicion aroused by his conversion meant that he had little to do with the movement for the restoration of mediaeval churches (which were all Anglican) that became increasingly prevalent from around 1840, whilst the new ones he designed were almost all Catholic. He was a gifted polemicist and although he did little practical work for the Ecclesiologists, his Contrasts (1834) and True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) were highly influential on them. His work on Sir C Barry’s new Palace of Westminster did not follow his preference for the earlier C14, as most of the detail he produced was in the Perp style. Pugin became famous and was overwhelmed with work, which contributed to his early death. Other factors were disagreements over the direction to be taken by the emergent Catholic church in England and personal tragedy. He was largely instrumental in reviving the design and making of stained glass in accordance with what he and his contemporaries saw as mediaeval principles. His earliest glass was made variously by W Warrington, W Wailes and T Willement, but he soon moved to J Hardman and Co, for whom he provided designs until his death and also designed many fittings.
Lit: P Atterbury and C Wainwright (eds): Pugin: A Gothic Passion, 1994; S A Shepherd: The Stained Glass of A W N Pugin, 2009; P Stanton: Pugin, 1971
Fitting: Etchingham, tiles
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Paul; Staplefield (gone); West Lavington
Paul Quail (1928-2010) studied at the Art Schools of Chelsea and Brighton, at the latter of which he obtained a teaching qualification. He studied stained glass making in greater detail with Lowndes and Drury, F H Spear and J E Nuttgens. He afterwards worked on his own account and taught at West Dean College, Singleton.
(Obit: The Guardian, 21 October 2010)