W Wailes Wailes and Strang
William Wailes (1808-81) was born in Northumberland and in 1838 established a business in Newcastle-upon-Tyne which developed to a considerable size and supplied glass by various designers to churches all over England, though the greatest quantity of their work is to be found in the North East. Wailes, by origin a grocer and also a landscape painter, was interested mainly in the business side and his new approach, which involved making glass on a scale previously unheard of, helped to ensure his success, for it meant he could undercut the prices of his rivals yet prosper. For a few years from 1841 he was A W N Pugin’s preferred glass maker and in the 1850s the expanding business supplied architects like W Butterfield, J L Pearson and H Woodyer (see this section below). Its designs continued to be firmly gothic after Wailes in 1861 went into partnership with his son-in-law Thomas Rankine Strang (1835-99). Strang was also primarily a businessman, who took over the firm after Wailes died and was in turn followed by his son William Wailes Strang (1867-1942) until it closed in 1914. For much of this later period the main designer is thought to have been T R Strang’s wife, Margaret Janet Strang (1834-1901), who was the daughter of Wailes.
Glass: Arundel (attr); Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Church Road, Hove; Chichester, – St Peter the Great; Ditchling (replaced); Eastbourne, – St Mary; Hartfield; Horsham, – St Mary; Iford; Lewes, – St Thomas; Lindfield; Litlington; Lower Beeding; Netherfield; Nuthurst; Piddinghoe; Rodmell; Seaford; Tangmere; Telscombe (attr)
Wainwright and Waring
This company can be traced in directories at several addresses in West and South London between 1908 and 1965, when they were at 14 Mortlake High Street. Their main business was metal windows, but they also made stained glass, particularly during the period after World War II when demand was high. Among the designers was A Acket (AA). At an earlier date, their glass is also to be found in the extraordinary neo-Tudor Liberty’s store of 1922-23 in Great Marlborough Street, London.
Glass: Haywards Heath, – St Wilfrid (AA)
A S Walker
Arthur Stanley Walker (1890-1966) was born the son of a railway clerk. He trained in glassmaking with Burlison and Grylls and became chief designer for G Maile and Son. In 1934 he was living in Harrow on the Hill and was still working for Maile’s after World War II; the latest recorded example of glass he made for Maile’s is at Keynsham, Somerset, dated 1961. This was later in date than most other such windows and it is highly likely that he was working on his own account as well from a much earlier date. He was to die in Canada shortly after marrying a Canadian wife.
Glass: Crawley, – St Peter; Crawley Down; Eastbourne, – Holy Trinity Trees
Katie Walker (b1969) studied furniture and related design at Ravensbourne College of Design and the Royal College of Art. She established her own studio in 1994 at Warnham, where she designs and makes furniture.
Fittings: Arundel, altar and other fittings
Leonard Walker (1877-1964) was born in Ealing and had successively studios in Hampstead and the King’s Road, though most of his glass was made by J Powell and Sons. He was also an accomplished water-colourist. His earliest known glass at Brandon, Suffolk dates from 1900 when he was only 23 and his latest recorded window dating from 1957 is at Gelveston, Norfolk. During his long career his style evolved and his later work used slab glass, thick and uneven, much of which was made especially made for him. In addition, his heavy leading and restricted painted detail reveal Expressionist influence. He taught and eventually became principal at St John’s Wood School of Art, near where he lived, as well as belonging to the Art Workers Guild, of which he was master in 1950.
Lit: NAL Information file
J B Wall
Joseph Barker Daniel Wall (1849-1923) was a pupil and later assistant of John Whichcord, junior (1823-85), before practising in New Cross, London; later his office was in Walbrook in the City and he applied from there to become FRIBA. He worked in Devon in his youth, but from 1887 lived in Bexhill, where he was active as an architect and surveyor on the development of the town, where there are many houses by him.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Bexhill, – St Andrew (1900)
A G Wallace
Arthur Gregory Wallace (1872-1917) was the son of the vicar of the Ascension, Lavender Hill, a church by J Brooks that was completed by Somers Clarke junior and his partner J T Micklethwaite. Presumably because of this contact, Wallace became their pupil and worked on the completion of the church himself. Afterwards he worked in Micklethwaite’s office. In 1901 he was still living in Battersea, in the same locality, as a lodger in the home of another architect, Thomas Reeve Greig (1865-1921) and in 1911, still single, he had moved only as far as Upper Tooting. After Micklethwaite’s death, Wallace continued at least some of his work, including the restoration of Whittlesford church, Cambridgeshire, and was using the name of Micklethwaite in his practice as late as 1911, when he completed the firm’s work on Winchelsea church. However, by 1913 when he designed the choir school for Westminster Abbey, he used only his own name.
(My thanks to Nicholas Antram for putting me on the track of Wallace).
Restored: Winchelsea (mentioned in 1911)
McLeod Wallace is on record as an architect in Chichester in 1956 at 65 The Pallant and he worked at West Itchenor church in both 1950 and 1959. There is no other reference to him in the records, although he was an ARIBA.
Altered: West Itchenor (1950 and 1959)
Sue Wallis lives currently in Worthing, where she is involved in educational projects and teaches stained glass making.
Glass: Old Shoreham
John Walsh was a statuary at various addresses in the West End of London, where he can be traced from 1757 to 1777. In addition to church monuments, he was regarded as an accomplished architectural carver. One of his monuments is that in Westminster Abbey to Sir T Robinson, the probable designer of Glynde church.
Coat of Arms: Glynde
Walter of Hereford
Walter of Hereford (d1309) first appears in 1277/78 in connection with the building of the Lady chapel of Hereford cathedral and he also worked for the king on Vale Royal abbey, Cheshire from 1278 to 1290.. Other work he undertook for the king included Caernarfon castle, where he is to be found from 1295 until his death. Of particular relevance to his possible involvement in Winchelsea church, is his known responsibility for the Grey Friars church in London, in which the queen took a strong interest and which was the first preaching church, i e a hall church with nave and aisles of equal height.
Worked on: Winchelsea (attr)
A L Ward
Arthur Lucien Ward (1867-1944) was born in South Stoneham, Hampshire, and by the time he was aged 4 in 1871 was living with his grandparents there. His grandfather described himself as an artist, though nothing is known about the training or subsequent career of A L Ward until in 1891 he appears as a painter in glass, living in lodgings at Newington. Thereafter, he acquired premises for his own business at 117 Ladbroke Grove, London, where he was still working in 1942. By 1918 he was designing glass for A R Mowbray and continued to do so until the mid-1930s.
Glass: Herstmonceux; Slinfold; Worthing, – St Symphorian, Durrington
Edward Matthew Ward (1815-79) was born in London to a family of artists, though his father was a banker. He studied privately and at the RA Schools, where he was a protégé of Sir F Chantrey and Sir David Wilkie (1785-1841), the painter. He spent nearly four years in Rome and returned via Munich, where his interest in wall paintings was aroused – he painted several of a historical nature in the new Palace of Westminster over a period of 15 years. He was quickly successful as a history painter in the conventional idiom of the time with a weakness for subjects taken from the C17, and was elected an Associate of the RA and subsequently an RA. He committed suicide at his house in Windsor.
Lit: J Dafforne: The Life and Works of Edward Matthew Ward, 1879; DNB
Restored: Battle, wall paintings
H Ward H Ward and Son
Henry Ward (1854-1927) was a Londoner who studied in Paris. For the sake of his health, he moved to Hastings, where he designed the Town Hall in 1880 and was by 1881 Borough Surveyor (BN 41 p343). In private practice, he worked with Walter Liberty Vernon (1846-1914) on mainly public and commercial buildings in Bexhill, Hastings and Eastbourne, probably until Vernon emigrated to Australia at some point in the 1880s. After this Ward appears to have worked on his own, though the change in title of the practice to Henry Ward and Son implies that at least one of his two sons, Henry Dorrington Ward (1883-1968) or Frank Dorrington Ward (1885-1972), both of them architects. joined him. It still went by this name in 1950, though in 1938 it appears as Henry Ward, Son and Ray (KD). Nothing is known of Ray.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Bexhill, – St Stephen (1898-1900)
Restored/altered: Hastings, – Christ Church, Ore (1950 as – HW and Son); – Holy Trinity (1906)
Ward and Hughes Curtis, Ward and Hughes Ward and Nixon T Ward
Thomas Ward (1808-70) (TW) was a Yorkshireman who in c1836 became a partner of John Henry Nixon (1802-57); they did work for A W N Pugin, though their ‘soft’ style of drawing could not have met with his approval. By 1843 their address was 67 Frith Street, where the firm remained for many years under various guises (KD/L). Nixon was initially an artist and in the Guildhall Art Gallery, London is a painting by him of Queen Victoria’s first visit to the City after her accession in 1837, by which time he was already in partnership with Ward. This combination of painting and glass was already established, for Nixon had previously been a partner in the little known glass-making enterprise of Hancock, Nixon and Hunt which had taken a particular interest in new colours. Despite his relatively young age, Nixon appears to have retired about 1850. Ward continued the business and for some years at least retained Nixon’s name. He may first have employed H Hughes (HH) during this period, though he does not appear in the records until 1857, when both are listed at 67 Frith Street (KD/L), and he became formally Ward’s partner. Hughes, like Nixon before him, also worked for himself and the partnership with Ward may have been interrupted, for Ward disappears from KD between 1858 and 1860, before the firm became Ward and Hughes the following year (KD/L). In 1868, shortly before Ward’s death, the firm was at Green Street, Grosvenor Square and when Hughes died in 1883, T F Curtis, a relation, took it over, calling it Curtis, Ward and Hughes. Curtis signed some of the company’s glass, presumably because he had been involved in the design, but more usually he employed outside designers, the most prolific of whom was G Parlby (GP). The firm did not end with the death of Curtis in 1924, but lasted until about 1930 under his daughter, Ethel Kibblewhite (1873-1947), who lived at 67 Frith Street where she conducted a kind of salon of avant garde artists such as J Epstein. Much of the earlier work of the company, though well received at the time, has been replaced.
Glass: Angmering (Ward and Nixon); Billingshurst; Brighton and Hove, – St Barnabas, Hove; – Good Shepherd; – St John the Baptist, Palmeira Square, Hove; – St John, Preston; – Holy Trinity, Blatchington Road, Hove; – St Philip; Burwash (TW only); Coolhurst (altered later); Crawley, – St Margaret, Ifield, – St Peter; Cuckfield; Duncton; East Lavant; Etchingham; Fairlight (TW only); Forest Row (Ward and Nixon); Funtington (HH only); Hartfield; Hastings, – All Saints (HH only); – St Mary Magdalene (HH only); Hellingly; Iping; Lancing, – St James; Littlehampton, – St Mary (formerly?); Midhurst (TW only – formerly); Portslade, – St Andrew; Rotherfield (GP – attr); Rudgwick (HH only); Rustington (some signed by Curtis); Slinfold (HH only); Sompting (HH only and Ward and Hughes); Streat; Wadhurst (TW only); Wisborough Green (HH only); Worthing, – Christ Church
The Warham Guild, named after William of Warham, the last pre-Reformation Archbishop of Canterbury, was established in 1912 by Percy Dearmer (1867-1936), an Anglican clergyman whose chief interests were liturgy and in particular the design and production of vestments. After a period as vicar in Primrose Hill, London, during which he was active both as a Christian Socialist and a writer on liturgical questions, he devoted himself increasingly to the latter and to collecting and editing hymns and carols. He became finally though in the event briefly a Canon of Westminster. After Dearmer’s death the Guild became closely linked with A R Mowbray and Co and after that in turn had in 1969 merged with J Wippell and Co (see this section below), the Guild was subsumed in the new enterprise and by 1980 had effectively ceased to exist. In its heyday the Guild was a major influence on Anglo-Catholic liturgy. Its vestments were particularly prized and were at the centre of its activities, but it also designed fittings such as altars, using designers like F E Howard. It also appears to have used outsiders like L Ginnett (LG) for the modest amount of stained glass it produced. In addition W Wheeler (see this section below) produced at least one design for a statue for the Guild, probably in the period after 1945 when he was a member of the Council for the Care of Churches.
My thanks to Fr Stephen Keeble for the above information about Wheeler
Source: DNB [on Dearmer]
Glass: Steyning (LG)
Fitting: Bexhill, – St Barnabas (reredos – attr)
E L Warre
Edmond Lancelot (known as ‘Bear’) Warre (1877-1961) was the son of a master and later headmaster of Eton, where he was born. The circumstances in which he trained as an architect are not recorded, but he was practising as a church restorer by 1907 and lived in London, mostly in Chelsea. He wrote about architecture. He became an army officer during World War I. On account of their common connection with Eton he met John Christie of Glyndebourne, for Christie was for many years a master there. He helped him to remodel his house and to design the first opera house (replaced c1993). In addition,the alterations he undertook to Ringmer church were paid for by Christie. Warre is known to have designed a church in Enfield, Middlesex in 1909 (now a Greek Orthodox one).
Altered: Ringmer (1922)
E P Warren
Edward Prioleau Warren (1856-1937) was born in Bristol, where he went to school at Clifton College and attended the university before becoming a pupil of Bodley and Garner. Warren was to write a memoir of Bodley after his death which until recently was the only account of his life. He started his practice in 1885 in London and shared premises with two fellow ex-pupils of Bodley, one of them A H Skipworth, though they appear never to have been partners. Warren was competent in the classical and gothic styles and designed houses, as well as working extensively at Oxford, where his brother was president of Magdalen College, and Cambridge. He was Consulting Architect to the ICBS and became Master of the Art Workers Guild.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Good Shepherd (1921-22 and 1927)
Restored: West Grinstead (1890)
J C T Warren
John Cecil Turnbull Warren (born 1931) became a member of the RIBA in 1959 and in 1964 was a founder-member of Architectural and Planning Partnership of London, Horsham and Brighton. He remained a partner until he moved to Yorkshire in about 1990, where he is still registered as an architect at Askrigg, Leyburn. The two restorations below may have involved others in the partnership. He has a long-standing interest in conservation both at home and abroad, about which he has written. For 20 years he was architect to the Weald and Downland Museum at Singleton and the museum at Amberley.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Horsham, – St Mark (new) (1988-90)
Restored: Compton (1975); Up Marden (1975-77)
W Warrington Warrington and Co Warrington and Son
William Warrington (1796-1869) was born in New Romney, Kent and it is possible that his father was a glazier. He became a pupil of T Willement (see this section below) and worked for A W N Pugin in London in the late 1830s, before they quarrelled. His early glass was pictorial, but from the 1840s he used the Italian and gothic styles, though his gothic glass was criticised for the poor drawing, garish colours and failure to follow mediaeval examples. In 1848 his History of Stained Glass aroused the enduring wrath of The Ecclesiologist. His standing was at its highest in the late 1840s and 1850s and during that time his own style developed little. The garish colours and lack of understanding of the gothic changed little, leading to increased criticism. By the early 1860s he had been joined by his son James Perry Warrington (1818/19-92) and the firm became known as Warrington and Co or, on occasion, Warrington and Son. The son continued the company after his father’s death, using a style more acceptable to contemporary taste, so that the company is the only glass maker whose products span the whole period of Victorian glass and much of the Edwardian. Probably after the son’s death, the firm relocated to 70 Albion Street in the centre of Leeds and the earliest definite mention of them there dates from 1895. Nothing of its ownership at this time is known, but the company lasted until at least c1905, the approximate date of a window at Udimore.
Lit: A List of some of the Principal Works, nd [1860s?] (NAL Special Collections 86.BB.27); DNB
Glass: Bishopstone; Brede; Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Church Road, Hove; Linchmere; Lindfield; Peasmarsh (formerly and attr); Salehurst; Udimore; Westbourne
David Wasley (b1949), who is also a painter, trained at the Royal College of Art. He then received training in glass making from P Reyntiens and worked with him before starting his own studio in 1984. During his time with Reyntiens, he also made some windows to the design of J Piper (JP), who was closely associated with Reyntiens. Wasley now lives and works in Chesham, Buckinghamshire, where he belongs to a group, 3rd Millenium Artists, which is chiefly involved in the design and restoration of stained glass, particularly in that part of England.
Glass: Climping; West Firle (JP)
White Watson (1760-1835) belonged to a family of masons working in Derbyshire, where he spent most of his life in Bakewell. In addition to memorial tablets, mostly in Derbyshire, he was interested in minerals and fossils and supplied them to many of the nobility of the county. The reason for his single memorial in Sussex, so far from home, is not known.
Memorial: Worthing, – St Mary, Broadwater
Mary Seton Watts (1849-1938) was born in India of Scottish parentage and studied at the Slade and South Kensington Schools of Art. Already an accomplished artist, she married in 1886 George Frederick Watts (1817-1904 – ‘England’s Michelangelo’) as his second wife. For the rest of her life she divided her efforts between, first, looking after her much older husband and, after his death, sustaining his reputation and, second, pursuing her own artistic interests. These were centred on the revival of Celtic art and were closely linked with the emergence of Art Nouveau. Her most remarkable work, the Watts Mortuary chapel at Compton, Surrey, allowed her to combine her love of Celtic art with G F Watts’s memory. Also at Compton, where they lived, she established the Watts Gallery devoted to his work.
J K Wearing
For John K Wearing, see under J L Denman.
Sir A Webb
Sir Aston Webb (1849-1930) was a pupil of R R Banks and C Barry junior until he went into independent practice in 1873. He achieved success within a short time, particularly in competitions for large public projects. In a prolific career, these included the re-planning of The Mall and Buckingham Palace and also the Victoria and Albert Museum. He rose to be President of both the RA and RIBA and was particularly admired for the planning of his buildings, though the elevations were sometimes criticised for their ponderousness. In the words of his obituary in The Times, he was ‘almost too successful’, with a large and necessarily rather anonymous office. In Sussex he and his first partner Ingress Bell (1837-1914) were responsible for the new Christ’s Hospital outside Horsham. His relatively few churches are in the simplified gothic of his era and, unexpectedly in the light of Webb’s other work, show the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement. In his final years he went into partnership with his son Maurice Everett Webb (1880-1939), but withdrew from the practice and all public life after a road accident.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Times 22 Aug 1930; RIBAJ 37 pp710-11; DNB
Restored/extended: Easebourne (1912); Turners Hill (1923); Westfield (1889)
Fitting: Hastings, – St Matthew, Silverhill, reredos (1900)
Christopher Rahere Webb (1886-1966) and his brother G Webb (see this section immediately below) were nephews of Sir A Webb (see immediately above). After training at the Slade School Christopher Webb decided to become a glass painter and turned to Sir J N Comper, with whom he worked betwen 1909 and 1914. His first studio was at Guildford with W H R Blacking, also a Comper pupil, with whom he collaborated closely. In 1920 he opened a studio at 11 New Court, Carey Street, London (KD/L), but was no longer there two years later. Like his brother, Webb lived in East Grinstead before moving to St Albans, where he was joined in the early 1950s by his son, Martin (he later became a stone carver and the firm he established with his son Oliver still exists in Malvern, Worcestershire). Like Comper and Blacking, Christopher Webb was influenced by classical and Renaissance examples, especially in the fittings he made.
Lit: E Roberts: Christopher Webb and Orchard House Studio, JSG 25 (2001) pp79-94
Fittings: Littlehampton, – St Mary; Worthing, St John
Glass: Aldingbourne; Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Waterloo Street; – St Matthias; Coolhurst (altered existing glass); Eastbourne, – St Mary, Willingdon; – St Saviour; Felpham; Fishbourne; Forest Row; Framfield; Icklesham; Isfield; Jarvis Brook; Mayfield; Midhurst; Pevensey; Rye; Selsey, – St Wilfrid; West Itchenor; Worthing, – St John, West Worthing
Geoffrey Fuller Webb (1879-1954) was the older brother of C Webb (see this section immediately above). He trained first at the Westminster School of Art and then under C E Kempe and Sir J N Comper (in the latter case like his brother). For some considerable time until at least 1921 he was closely involved with both H Bryans and E Heasman, both Kempe pupils, though Webb’s work shows little sign of Kempe’s influence. The working relationship with Bryans and Heasman may possibly have extended to some form of partnership. However, all three men also produced work independently and Webb settled at East Grinstead in 1914, where he spent the rest of his life, even though the others remained in London. Though his brother Christopher later lived in East Grinstead for a while as well, they always worked separately. Geoffrey, as well as designing new windows, restored old glass and much of his original work is heraldic in nature.
Glass: Cowfold; East Grinstead, – St Mary; Henfield; Lindfield; Scaynes Hill
Philip Speakman Webb (1831-1915) trained as an architect under J Billing and then worked for G E Street, whose chief assistant he became before starting his own practice in 1856. He met W Morris (for whom he designed the Red House, Bexleyheath, then in Kent ) in Oxford in Street’s office and was involved in Morris and Co from its foundation in 1861. He designed glass and other artefacts for the company, but is today best remembered for his houses in the Arts and Crafts idiom, in which he sought to use local building traditions. One of the finest of these is Standen, on the edge of East Grinstead. With Morris he was also a founder-member of the SPAB.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael
J Webber G Taylor
James Webber (1801-after 1851) and George Taylor (1806-after 1881) were described as architects when working at Warnham, but were in fact carpenters, first in Carfax, Horsham (Pigot’s Directory, 1832) and later in East Street (ibid, 1840). Both are listed in 1841, but only Webber was still in Horsham in 1851, he may be the James Webber recorded as having died there in 1856. In 1851 Taylor had returned to his home-village of Cuckfield, but he is recorded in the next three censuses in Croydon, still a builder and/or carpenter. His death cannot be ascertained with certainty but a likely candidate died in Croydon in 1885.
Renovated: Warnham (1828-32)
Henry Weekes (1807-77) was apprenticed to W Behnes and also joined the RA Schools. After finishing his studies he was for 14 years assistant to Sir F Chantrey and completed his outstanding commissions after his death. He himself was best known as a portrait sculptor, becoming an RA, and for many years he was professor of sculpture there. Among the public commissions with which he was associated was the carving on the Albert Memorial.
Memorial: Eastbourne, – St Mary, Willingdon
Julius Weeks is an architect who after working by himself for 18 years is now with Dwell Architecture+Design of Scaynes Hill, Sussex. He trained at Brighton College of Arts and Crafts and lists ecclesiastical work among his specialities.
Extended: Spithurst (as ‘Weekes’)
J Wells-Thorpe Wells-Thorpe and Partners
John Arthur Wells-Thorpe (b1928) was born in Brighton, trained as an architect at Brighton Polytechnic and has spent his professional life in the city. He designed a number of churches in Sussex, as well as the new civic centre in Hove. In more recent years he was much involved in the design of hospitals and their running, though he designed a hall for a Roman Catholic church in Horsham as recently as 1994. The practice was renamed in about 1972, having previously been Gotch and Partners, and by 1985 was known as Wells-Thorpe and Suppel. The firm has designed office buildings as far away as Bristol and has also worked in Asia and Africa; Wells-Thorpe became President of the Commonwealth Association of Architects.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Ascension, Westdean (1958); – Holy Cross, Woodingdean (1968); Resurrection, Woodingdean, (1958-59 as Gotch and Partners (now St Patrick RC church)); Chichester, – St Wilfrid, Parklands (1973)
Repaired: Pyecombe (1970-72 – initially as Gotch and Partners)
C E Welstead Ltd
This glass-maker of Croydon, who appears in directories between 1922 and 1973 was a general supplier of glass including windows. For stained glass the company appear to have used outside designers, notably A Acket.
Glass: Bognor, – St Wilfrid
Peter West is a woodworker with a particular interest in turning, who makes furniture. His family business is at Eastdean (W) and has existed since 1809.
Made: Seaford, – St Leonard, font and altar (wooden parts).
William West is described as an architect of Haslemere, Surrey in the sole reference to him, as supposed restorer of Lurgashall in 1870. However, no one of this name and occupation is listed in contemporary editions of Kelly’s Directories for Surrey and despite the lack of records, it is more likely that his role was that of contractor, probably for W White (see this section below), who has been suggested as the architect of that restoration.
Restored: Lurgashall (1866-70 – doubtful)
Nathaniel John Hubert Westlake (1833-1921) was born at Romsey. He started in publishing, but his study of mediaeval art led to commissions from W Burges and others as a decorative painter. Though he continued to work on his own account, he joined Lavers and Barraud as chief designer in 1858 and eventually acquired and renamed the company. He wrote a four-volume History of Design in Painted Glass.
See under Lavers and Barraud for the works carried under their auspices.
Painting: Brighton, – St Peter, Preston (attr)
Advised: Westbourne (assisted the Rev J H Sperling)
Henry Westmacott (1784-1861) was the younger brother of Sir R Westmacott (see this section below) and the father of J S Westmacott (see immediately below). Like his brother, Henry was probably trained by their father, whose business he was to continue. In addition to memorials, mostly in neo-classical style, this produced numerous fireplaces and other architectural carving and Westmacott also undertook quite large scale commissions as a mason. After 1828 he moved to Scotland, where the elaboration of his sculpture increased.
Memorials: Chichester, – St Olave (formerly St Martin); Crowhurst; Lewes, – St John Baptist, Southover
J S Westmacott
James Sherwood Westmacott (1823-1900) was the son of Henry Westmacott (see immediately above) and the nephew of another sculptor, Sir R Westmacott (see immediately below). James studied in Edinburgh to which his father moved and then in Dresden, Germany. He exhibited for 40 years at the RA, showing mainly busts and other statues. Amongst the work he produced were two figures for the new House of Lords. He lived and worked at various addresses in and around London, but by 1881 he was living in Clapham, where he died.
Memorials: Eastbourne, – St Mary; Fairlight
Sir R Westmacott
Sir Richard Westmacott (1775-1856) studied under his father and then in Rome, where he met Antonio Canova (1757-1822), the leading neoclassical Italian sculptor and a major influence on Westmacott, though the most recent research suggests he was not a pupil. He travelled widely in Italy and on return in 1797 his mainly neoclassical training was widely regarded with suspicion, but he was successful and prolific and became an RA in 1811. His work was of uneven standard; particularly his smaller monuments which would often have been made by assistants. He was more closely involved with his public memorials in Westminster Abbey and St Paul’s to political, military and naval leaders for which he was best known. He also worked on Buckingham Palace and the British Museum and his most familiar work is the colossal statue of Achilles in Hyde Park. The monuments that he designed often introduced a then new element of sentimentality. His rate of production declined from the mid-1830s but he remained a valued source of advice on public bodies. After his death his reputation declined, especially by comparison with his most eminent contemporaries, Sir F Chantrey and J Flaxman.
Lit: M Busco: Sir Richard Westmacott, Sculptor, Cambridge, 1994
Memorials: Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas; Buxted; Cuckfield; Framfield; Horsham, – St Mary; Pett (attr); Petworth; Ringmer (attr); Slindon; Storrington
R Westmacott junior
Richard Westmacott junior (1799-1872) was the eldest son of Sir Richard Westmacott (see immediately above), under whom he trained. He also attended the RA Schools before going to Italy, where he travelled widely. After his return he worked for a while with his father, but by 1830 had his own practice in Wilton Place. This was similar to his father’s, combining public work and private commissions including portrait busts and monuments and he also carved church fittings such as the marble reredos at North Perrott, Somerset. Like his father also he became an RA and despite inheriting a considerable sum from him and marrying an heiress, he continued to work, though after becoming professor of sculpture at the RA, he produced a decreasing amount of work of his own.
Memorials: Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas; Harting; Storrington
Westminster Marble Company
Despite the impressive sounding title, references to this company are few. It is known to have supplied a small number of monuments between 1839 (at Fryerning, Essex and in fact probably not actually made before 1844) and 1852, as well as that at West Hoathly, and though simple, the quality of workmanship is high. However, directories show no likely company at an address in Westminster. It is, however, conceivable that this is an alternative name for the better documented Patent Marble Works, Westminster, which is recorded between 1809 and 1853.
Memorial: West Hoathly
Hugh Thomas Weston (b1870 – there seems little doubt about his second name though some records give J as a second initial) described himself as a decorative artist in 1901 and a sign writer and artist in 1911. He was the son of James Weston (born at Southborough, Kent in 1840/41), who was a carpenter and decorator at 1 Priory Street, Hastings and is in KD/S from 1889 to 1915. Although Hugh Weston was only 18 when he worked with H Tickner in 1888 on the decoration of St Mary in the Castle, he can plausibly be accepted as co-author of the work. This is because in 1901, when he was married and had his own household, Tickner was a boarder, thereby demonstrating that their association was an enduring one. However, by 1911 they were no longer together but Weston described himself as a sign-writer and, in brackets, an artist. There is no reliable date of death as yet.
Decorated: Hastings, – St Mary in the Castle, altar space decorations
Christopher Whitworth Whall (1849-1924) was the son of a Northamptonshire rector and trained at the RA Schools as a painter, as well as studying at the National Art Training School (now the Royal College of Art). Early attempts at portraiture met with slight success and from 1876 he spent three years in Italy, where Botticelli’s paintings were a major influence. Back in London, he became a Catholic and interested himself in stained glass, though little survives from this early period; in particular, of his first commission, the glass he designed at St Etheldreda, Ely Place, which was made by W G Saunders and mostly destroyed in World War II. At this stage he had little material success and after marriage in 1885 he settled for ten years in a Surrey cottage outside Dorking, where, increasingly under the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement (he was an early member of the Art Workers Guild), he involved himself in the manufacture as well as the design of stained glass, though he produced designs for other makers, notably for J Powell and Sons, the last as late as 1894; he appears also to have worked on the production of some of these projects. At this time he was also involved in designing glass for at least two churches designed by J D Sedding and completed by H Wilson. During the 1890s he emerged as a major figure in stained glass design and making, being increasingly seen by experts as the most influential stained glass artist of his time, although his use of colour and detail, particularly his skilful use of leading and the quality of his drawing, is sometimes superior to his overall designs. To a wider public he remained little known, probably due to his aversion to publicity. A circle of pupils and followers formed round him, first in Surrey and particularly after increasing success made his return to London unavoidable in 1895. There he taught at the Central School of Arts and Crafts until 1905, as well as the Royal College of Art for four further years. During this time he made his glass at the newly established Lowndes and Drury which he had helped to set up. Greater material success followed his series of windows for the Lady Chapel of Gloucester cathedral. He opened his own workshop in 1907 in Hammersmith in partnership with his daughter Veronica (see this section immediately below) in a studio adapted for him by his friend C S Spooner. In 1922 he and his daughter established a limited company, Whall and Whall. He also helped to found a department in Dublin for teaching the making of stained glass.
Lit: William Morris Gallery (P Cormack): Christopher Whall, 1849-1924, Enfield, 1999; P Cormack: The Stained Glass of Christopher Whall, Boston, Mass, 1999
Glass: Lindfield; Milland; Racton; Shipley (attr – probably erroneous); Steyning; Ticehurst (for J Powell and Sons)
Veronica Whall (1887-1967) was the daughter of Christopher Whall (see this section immediately above) and was born while he was living near Dorking. After returning to London, she worked with him and the studio-manager, E Woore (see this section below) and became thoroughly competent in all areas of glass design and manufacture. Characteristic of her work are large-scale,figures in static poses. She and her father were directors of Whall and Whall Ltd, which was founded under this name in 1922, though she was already making glass before this date. After his death, helped by her brother, also Christopher, she kept the business going until her retirement in 1953. Curiously it does not appear in KD/L until 1934, when the address was 1 Ravenscourt Park. She wrote and illustrated at least one children’s book.
Glass: Amberley; Compton; Eastbourne, – Christ Church; – St Michael, Willingdon Road; Steyning (attr); Westfield
Charles Wheeler (later Sir Charles) (1892-1974) trained as a sculptor in his birthplace, Wolverhampton and at the Royal College of Art. He produced some portrait busts, mainly in his earlier years, but came to specialise in architectural sculpture. His work adorns many public buildings in London, most notably the Bank of England and the Ministry of Defence. He was knighted after becoming President of the RA, the first sculptor to hold this position, and spent his last years at Five Ashes outside Mayfield, where he died.
Frederick Wheeler (1853-1931) was a pupil of Charles Henry Driver (1932-1900), known particularly as a pioneer of architectural ironwork, and he himself was in practice in London from 1876. In 1895 his address there was 22 Chancery Lane but by 1891 at the latest he was also in practice in Horsham. Most of his work is in London, where it includes housing and business premises, notably the remarkable St Paul’s Studios for bachelor artists in West Kensington. In 1899 (KD) his partner was Percy Dean Lodge (1862-1923, who came from Manchester but in 1901 was living in London); despite this address, there are indications that Wheeler may have worked at Horsham only). From 1903, when the partnership with Lodge was dissolved, until 1907 he was alone and then from 1907 to 1921 C R B Godman joined him, as did his son, Christopher William Frederick Wheeler (1878-1931). Father and son remained partners after 1921 in London only. Wheeler built himself a house in Sutton, Surrey where he died.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Littlehampton, – St James (1908-10 – with Godman)
Altered/extended: Southwater (1909-10 – with Godman)
Gervase Wheeler (1824-89) was born in St Pancras, London, the son of a manufacturing goldsmith and jeweller, whose forebears are said to have come from Margate. He was a pupil of R C Carpenter, before working with A W N Pugin and the Cambridge Camden Society. By 1847 at the latest Wheeler had emigrated to New York and practised widely in New England, though he kept in touch with developments in architecture in Britain. His personal characteristics caused him problems during this period, notably a casual attitude to financial matters and a tendency to drop names and exaggerate his own importance. Wheeler’s entry in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects suggests he returned to England in 1865, but the last confirmed reference to him in the USA is 1860 and he is to be found in 1861 living in Devon with his American wife, calling himself a fundholder and landed proprietor. Such abrupt changes seem to have been another difficult aspect of his personality and the pattern continues. By 1866 he was practising again as an architect in London and Margate, where in that year (KD/Kent) he was at 16 Hawley Street. His identified work was mundane, e g additions to a school in Margate in 1866 (B 24 p674) and his main address was in Kilburn until at least 1872 (Proc RIBA). Initially, he had some success and he became FRIBA in 1867. His main field of interest was housing – he wrote a book in the USA and another in 1872, The Choice of a Dwelling. He was asked to return for a fuller discussion of a paper on American domestic architecture he read at a meeting of the RIBA (Proc RIBA), but soon afterwards he was rebuked for breaching professional etiquette by allowing his name to be advertised and his membership lapsed in 1872, ostensibly because of his failure to pay his membership dues. The entry on him in the Macmillan Encyclopedia assumes he died shortly afterwards, but in fact he moved with his large family to Hove. In 1874 and 1878 he had an office at 1 Church Road there (KD/S). Thereafter, it is likely that he retired, maintaining a modest practice for a while – in 1883 he gave his home address only in a list of architects that otherwise gave professional addresses (bound into BAL copy of BA 19 2 February 1883 p I). He moved several times within Brighton and Hove before his death and the addresses in various editions of KD/S suggest that his fortunes fluctuated.
Lit: BAL Biog file; R E Tribert: Gervase Wheeler: Mid-Nineteenth Century British Architect in America, unpublished thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1988
Wrote report: Brighton and Hove, – St John, Carlton Hill (1875-78)
Robert Wheeler (1827/28-after 1901) was born in Worcester, but the known details of both his training and his personal life contain many gaps. By 1851 he was married and living in Graham Street, London and subsequently he moved to Brenchley, Kent, where he became known as ‘Wheeler of Brenchley’. The census records him there in 1861 and in that year the practice of Hooker and Wheeler is found also there – this was presumably the practice to which Wheeler belonged and Hooker is almost certainly J M Hooker, who was born and later lived in the village, though it is not known how the two met. During the 1860s Wheeler’s whereabouts are by no means clear and Hooker’s name disappears from the practice, though Wheeler continues to appear in Kent. An architect named Robert Wheeler at 13A Great George Street in 1865-66 (KD/L) could well be the same, particularly if he was still in partnership with Hooker, who is known to have been in London then, though at a different address; if it is the same Wheeler it would have been quite usual to have had both a town and a country address. If so, this could account for a reference to one Robert Wheeler of Tonbridge who designed a church in Northampton in 1868-70; Tonbridge was the nearest town to Brenchley of any size so it may have been given as his address. More definitely, in 1871 he was living in Tunbridge Wells described as a widower and continued designing steadily through the 1870s. He was back in Brenchley by 1876 (KD/Kent) and may always have kept a presence there. In 1881 he was lodging in Tonbridge and a few buildings by him dating from the 1880s are known, but by 1891 he was living in Bloomsbury and had lowered his age on the census form by three years. That makes it highly likely that he is the same as the man also born at Worcester who in 1901 was living off his own means as a lodger in Camberwell and whose age is also three years too young for his known date of birth; thereafter he cannot be traced in the records. Despite his peripatetic existence, Wheeler had an extensive practice, designing and restoring churches as well as public buildings. A curious fact is that all the works by him that are recorded date from a relatively short period of his life, between 1869 and 1877.
Restored: Ashington (1871-72); Ewhurst Green (1869); Kingston by Lewes (1874)
William Wheeler (1895-1984) was a woodcarver who from 1909 to 1912 studied at the South Kensington School of Art Wood-Carving and then part time at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. After service in World War I he continued his studies at the Royal College of Art. He taught at St George’s School in Harpenden from 1927 and by 1928-29 was linked with Faith Craft, whose workshops were then in St Albans nearby. From 1932 he became their art director, as well as continuing to teach in the town, and remained until he left for war service in 1939. After World War II he became a Ministry of Labour inspector and assumed responsibility for the training of ex-servicemen as craftsmen to make good extensive war damage. He continued as a carver, being responsible for presentation caskets and other items, notably for the Worshipful Company of Carpenters in the City and it was probably at this time that he produced at least one design for the Warham Guild (see this section above). He also served on the Council for the Care of Churches. His final position, which he held at least informally for the rest of his life, was as instructor in carving at the City and Guilds of London Art School in Kennington.
My thanks to Fr Stephen Keeble of St George’s, Headstone, on whose researches the above account is based
Designed and carved: East Preston (pulpit)
G L Whelpton
Gertrude Lowe Whelpton (1867-1963) was the daughter of the first vicar of St Saviour, Eastbourne, Henry Robert Whelpton (1833-1902). His father, George (1797-1873), a self-made manufacturer of medicines who was born in Lincolnshire and originally a nonconformist, paid for much of the church. The daughter was a talented artist who trained in London (in 1891 she was an art student living with her aunt in Cavendish Square). She exhibited her work in public, but in accordance with the social norms of the day did not seek to earn her living in this way, if indeed she needed to. Detail of her later life is sparse, but she died at Uckfield.
Glass: Eastbourne, – St Saviour
(My thanks to Philip Cox for providing most of the above information).
Simon Whistler (1940-2005) was the son of Laurence Whistler (1912-2000), who was mainly responsible for reviving the art of glass engraving in England. The son learned the art from his father and pursued it during a successful career as a professional viola player. In his later years he took up engraving full time and amongst other things produced quite a few church windows.
Obit: The Times 26 April 2005
Glass: Funtington; Slindon
E E White
Eley Emlyn White (1854-1900) was born in Hampstead, the son of a solicitor. He became a pupil and by 1880 the partner of J T Christopher in Bloomsbury Square, London, J T Christopher had worked briefly in W Burges’s office, but little is known of him as an independent architect beyond one church in Watford, Hertfordshire. White worked on churches more widely, though his private life was turbulent. He separated from his wife and shot himself in Kensington after shooting a young actress.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Repaired: Treyford (1888 – dem)
William White is recorded as a sculptor and maker of monuments in c1631. He was probably London-based, but nothing is known for certain
Memorial: Isfield (attr)
William Henry White (1825-1900) was the son of a Northamptonshire curate related to Gilbert White of Selborne. He was articled to Daniel Goodman Squirhill (1808-63), an architect in Leamington, before joining the office of Sir George G Scott, a family friend. He may have been a pupil here for a short time, but within two years had started a practice in Truro, Cornwall, where much of his early work is to be found. He moved to London in 1852 and shared an address with G F Bodley for a while. He was soon working all over southern and western England, in South Africa, where his brother was a missionary but which he never visited, and even Madagascar. In addition to the design or restoration of churches, he also designed schools and many parsonages, as well as writing extensively. Among the houses he designed was one for his own use at Littlehampton which is presumably the explanation for his work in that area. Like W Butterfield and the earlier work of G E Street (he had also trained with the latter) many of his churches use polychromy and he was a regular contributor to The Ecclesiologist, which admired his work. His buildings, both secular and ecclesiastical, often display features that were then novel, including double-glazing and concrete as a structural material. He was a member of the Professional Committee of the ICBS and is not to be confused with a namesake who was for many years secretary of the RIBA.
Lit: G Hunter: William White, Pioneer Victorian Architect, 2010; BAL Biog file; DNB
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Luke, Queen’s Park (1875 – dem and replaced); Littlehampton, – St John (1876-80 – dem)
Restored: Beddingham (1884); Boxgrove (nd – doubtful); Littlehampton, – St Mary (1888-89 – dem); Lurgashall (1866-70 – attr); Patcham (1897-98); West Wittering (1875); Worthing, – St Andrew, West Tarring (1853-54 – doubtful)
The company of John Whitehead, later sculptors and masons, appears to have been established at an address in Rochester Row, Westminster around 1880 under the direction of John Whitehead (1845-1904), also an undertaker, though its first appearance in KD/L was in 1887. John Whitehead’s forebears had probably been engaged in the same trade since the late C18 Early references show that at that time they were primarily stone merchants, with further branches at Aberdeen, probably because of the popularity of granite from there for tombs and architectural detail and for a few years also at Carrara, Italy, to ensure a supply of marble. Directories show they moved to the grandly entitled Imperial Works at Oval, Kennington around 1903, probably under the direction of John Walter Whitehead junior (b1876), John Whitehead senior’s son, though in the 1901 census the son described himself as an undertaker, showing that the dual occupations in the family continued. The continued presence of the father at Rochester Row for the next two years might suggest that the firm had divided. The main part at Kennington was initially more involved in the sculptural and monumental side and though last recorded in 1974, is said to have lasted until about.1985. At least two sculptures in bronze by the firm exist in the City (dating from 1911 and 1921, though no artists are recorded), but in their later years they specialised in marble. Up to 1908 they contributed to the internal decoration of Westminster cathedral as designed by its architect J F Bentley.
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St John, Preston, font
R O Whitfield
Richard Osborne Whitfield (1843-1900) was the partner of J A Thomas and from 1878 to 1899 their office was at 20 Cockspur Street, an address favoured by architects, for George Somers Clarke (1822-82), cousin of the better known Somers Clarke junior, was there in 1875 and also in 1880 Francis Ebenezer Jones (1851-1928) and William Samuel Weatherley (1850-1922), who had been pupils and later assistants of Sir George G Scott. Nothing suggests they practised jointly with Whitfield or Thomas, though Weatherley was to sign Thomas’s FRIBA nomination in 1907. Whitfield was born in Southwark, the son of a doctor and apothecary, and was an early pupil at Lancing college, though the circumstances of his professional training are not recorded. He lived and died in Hampstead, where there is a memorial window to him, probably by H Bryans, in the parish church he attended, Emmanuel, West Hampstead, which Thomas had designed starting in 1897 (Church website). For the most part, the practice did domestic work and Thomas, the junior partner, probably took the lead in building churches, designing several others in the Surrey suburbs, e g St Mary, Cuddington, where he also lived at one time.
Designed: Crowborough, – All Saints (1881-83 – altered and extended)
John Whiting (1782-1854), to whom the monument at St Mary, Eastbourne signed by ‘Whiting’ of Northampton can with confidence be attributed, belonged to a family of statuaries that had been established in that town since at least the mid-C18. With this one exception all his known works are to be found in the Northampton area.
Memorial: Eastbourne, – St Mary
Anthony Whitty (AW) belonged to the practice of Ford, Newman and Whitty of Eastbourne, which first appears in directories in 1969 and of which he was a member in 1984 when he worked at Ovingdean. This practice has since merged with J D Clarke and Son, also of Eastbourne and among its partners who joined the new practice was R Crook (RC). An architect named Anthony Whitty, who had at an earlier date belonged to the practice of Anthony Whitty and Wilson of (then) Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia and designed a Methodist church there in 1953, may be the same.
Extended: Ovingdean (AW – 1984); Nutley (RC – 1986)
Francis Wigg (baptised 1790-1868) was the son of a London surveyor and followed in his footsteps as a builder, surveyor and architect, as well as being a magistrate. His address was in Bedford Row and he clearly prospered, for at his death he left nearly £60,000. His partners included G Pownall, who also signed the plans of St Clement, Halton, Hastings as architect, though T Catley was also involved.
Designed: Hastings, – St Clement, Halton (1839 – dem)
Amon Wilds (1762-1833) trained originally as a carpenter and, though probably born in Hastings, where he was baptised, was active as a builder and surveyor in Lewes from about 1790 until he moved to Brighton in 1820 and his Lewes business passed to J Berry. In fact. he continued to hold property in Lewes until c1826 and thus still had a franchise there. Sue Berry has not identified any buildings in Brighton for which Amon alone was responsible, though in at least eight cases he was associated with his son Amon Henry (see this section immediately below) and possibly also with the latter’s partner C A Busby, though the partnership between father and son ended in 1825. Before that both were active as builders and were involved in the speculative building of housing, notably Hanover Crescent. Subsequently the father gave up building and became Surveyor to the Town Commissioners and then a Commissioner himself. He is buried in St Nicholas churchyard in Brighton with a fine tomb topped by large volutes, which Sue Berry plausibly suggests was designed by Amon Henry.
Source: S Berry: The Georgian Provincial Builder-Architect and Architect – Amon and Amon Henry Wilds of Lewes and Brighton, c1790-1850, SAC 150 (2012) pp163-83
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Holy Trinity, Ship Street (1817 with his son); Lewes, – All Saints (1805)
A H Wilds
Amon Henry Wilds (1790-1857) was the son of A Wilds (see immediately above) with whom he worked in Lewes and moved with him to Brighton. On occasion he referred to himself as Henry Wilds to avoid confusion with his father. C A Busby was his partner from 1823 to 1825 and probably took the lead in their joint work, which was mostly domestic, though outside Sussex they were also responsible for St Mary, Maidenhead, Berkshire (1824-25), which was later altered and then rebuilt in 1962. After they parted and following an unedifying lawsuit that involved them both, Wilds was more prominent and worked on several substantial housing and landscaping schemes in Brighton and in Worthing, as well as making plans for an estate in Gravesend, Kent, where he designed the town hall in 1836. In 1831 he exhibited at the RA and continued to practise during the 1830s, though on a reduced scale because of the economic situation. He was also involved in work on the sea defences of Brighton and served intermittently as a Town Commissioner. In 1837 (PB 1837) and 1851 he was living at 8 Western Terrace, Brighton and by 1855 he had moved to Shoreham (KD), with his name spelled ‘Wylds’. However, his death there is recorded with the more familiar spelling and he was buried in Old Shoreham churchyard.
Source: S Berry: The Georgian Provincial Builder-Architect and Architect – Amon and Amon Henry Wilds of Lewes and Brighton, c1790-1850, SAC 150 (2012) pp163-83
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St George (1824-25); – Holy Trinity, Ship Street (1817 with his father; he possibly altered it in c1826-27); – St Margaret (1824 – dem); – St Mary (1827 – dem)
Memorial: Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas (attr)
A L Wilkinson
Alfred Lashbrook Wilkinson (1899-1983) was the son of H Wilkinson (see this section immediately below) and like him also designed stained glass. After studying at St Martin’s School of Art, by 1920 he was working with his father at 101 Gower Street (KD/L), which they shared with the business that continued to bear the name of the deceased A J Dix. However, only in 1941 (KD/L) was the son listed by name along with his father. After his father’s retirement he had a studio in North London and finally in Brightlingsea, Essex. In addition to working on his own account, he produced designs for, among others, Burlison and Grylls, Clayton and Bell and George King and Son of Norwich, the last over a period of more than ten years after World War II. Much of his work consists of single figures set in plain glass.
Glass: Forest Row; Washington; Wivelsfield
Horace Wilkinson (1866-1957) studied at Brighton School of Art and later also at the School in South Kensington. Initially he had a studio in Great Russell Street, London and was closely associated with a considerable number of glass designers and makers of the day, including A J Dix, E R Frampton (it is unclear whether this was the father or son), Burlison and Grylls and F Drake of Exeter. After 1901 he became independent and by 1920 (KD/L), together with his son, A L Wilkinson (see this section immediately above), his studio was at 101 Gower Street where Dix had worked before his death. The father continued to make glass in his name only and withdrew from business around 1945.
Glass: Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common
Thomas Willement (1786-1871) was the son of a painter of coaches and heraldry, in whose business he probably started. This early interest in heraldry led by 1812 to his involvement in stained glass – even after the revival of interest in glass of a religious nature, a high proportion of his work was heraldic, though by 1829 he had designed several church windows in what passed for a mediaeval style. Jim Cheshire (p37) calls him ‘the key link figure between Regency and Victorian stained glass’ and he reached his peak of activity in the 1840s, though little of the glass of his largest project, in the Temple Church, London (1839-42) survives. His work did not please A W N Pugin or the Ecclesiologists, though he made glass for the former during this period, until they quarrelled over Willement’s high prices and lack of the necessary skills. He sought to adapt his style to the new idiom, but artistic success was limited, though he pioneered the placing of panels of biblical scenes against a decorative background and his fortunes prospered in these later years. He continued to produce glass until he retired in 1865, though his ledger in his last years shows that many of the churches he supplied were those with which he already had connections, rather than new ones. Much of his glass has been replaced. His business at 25 Green Street, Mayfair (where his father had also been before him) extended beyond glass, for he undertook decorative schemes and fitted out houses. In Pigot’s Directory for 1839 he is also listed as a plumber, showing he could make the leadwork for his windows and he is known to have produced zinc panels bearing the Ten Commandments etc for reredoses, of which few survive.
Lit: Ledger 1841-65 (National Art Library Special Collections 86.ZZ.169); DNB
Fittings: Bodiam, pulpit; Northiam, heraldic painting
Glass: Balcombe; Bodiam; East Lavington; Fairlight; Forest Row; Hurstpierpoint; New Shoreham; Northiam; Peasmarsh (formerly); Tortington; Withyham, – St Michael; Worth; Worthing, – St Andrew, West Tarring; – St Mary, Broadwater
Nothing more than a bare surname is known for certain of the Brighton statuary who signed several tablets in the Mid-Sussex area over a period of almost 30 years in the earlier C19. However, Pigot’s Directory for 1832 lists William Williams as a stone- and marble-mason at 12 Bond Street, who is likely to be the same, though the name is too common to allow certainty. In view of the length of time during which his name is current, other work besides those listed below must exist.
Memorials: Albourne; Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas (old); Chailey; Denton; Henfield; Patcham
M M Williams
Morris Meredith Williams (1881-1973) was Welsh by birth and studied at the Slade School and in France and Italy. He became art master at Fettes College, Edinburgh in 1905 and retained links with Scotland at least until he moved to Devon in 1929, including work on the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh castle. As well as being a painter and book illustrator, he designed stained glass. His later glass was produced for Lowndes and Drury. His wife from 1906, Gertrude Alice (1877-1934), was also a stained glass artist and they collaborated until her death.
See under Lowndes and Drury for his work for them
The reference in 1863 to glass from this glass maker or, more likely, seller, at Fairlight is unsupported. He was said to come from Chichester, which under the circumstances seems rather distant from Fairlight, but directories of the period do not list any likely candidate of the name in the town.
Thomas Willsher (1840-after 1901) was a builder of 18 St John’s Street, Chichester, born at Oving as the son of an agricultural labourer, when in 1871 he contracted for a new west window at Yapton, which he may have designed. He moved about quite a bit for he can be traced as a joiner in Tottenham in 1891 and in 1901 he was living in East Ham, still a joiner. However, there is no certain further record of him.
Restored: Yapton (1871)
D W Willson
Daniel William Willson is found between 1824 and 1834 at an address off the New Road, London. Judging by his identified works, he specialised in tablets with sorrowing females and urns.
Memorial: East Grinstead, St Swithun
Thomas Wilmshurst (1806-80) was born in Clerkenwell and owned a glassworks off the Hampstead Road in 1839 (PD), moving around 1843 to 13 Foley Place (KD/L). He described himself as an artist in stained glass in 1851 and 1861, when he was living in St Marylebone and Finsbury respectively. He worked in several contrasting idioms; one was pictorial and much at odds with the mediaeval style favoured by artists such as A W N Pugin. The designs of two windows for 1856 from Ely cathedral show the extent to which he relied on paintings for his designs. One, still in situ, is based on a work by the C16 Venetian painter Bassano, whilst the other, now in the stained glass museum there, shows the influence of Overbeck, one of the contemporary German Nazarene painters. Interestingly, in 1861 two Germans were lodging in his household and though neither had an obvious connection with stained glass, this might suggest some familiarity with the country. Another, earlier source of foreign influence was his work with de la Roche of Paris, for whom he installed a window at Necton, Norfolk in 1844. Given the nature of much French glass of the date, this is a likely source for the lurid colouring often found in his own work. As well as the Ely window, much of his known work from the mid-1840s is in a similar vein, e g at Feering, Essex. Wilmshurst also used a most unusual monochrome technique which appealed in particular to evangelical clients who might still be suspicious of ostentatious religious imagery. In this context he worked closely with S S Teulon and his glass of 1856 at Netherfield is a good example of the technique. An example of a third technique, dating from around 1857 has recently come to light at the Scots Church in Hobart, Tasmania, having previously been assumed to be lost. This has an overall design in quarries of coloured and patterned glass into which decorative panels depicting in this case the Burning Bush have been set. Taken together, these three techniques, which Wilmshurst was using almost simultaneously, point to an inquiring mind. Too little is known about his business to know how far others contributed to his thinking. By 1852 (the date of glass in both names at Fersfield, Norfolk) he was in partnership with Francis Oliphant (1818-59), who had been employed by J Hardman and Co during the time that Pugin was associated with them and wrote about stained glass. The only documentary reference to the partnership is in 1854 (KD/L) though it is likely to have lasted at least until the following year.. By 1857, the date of the Hobart glass, he was alone at an address in Gower Street, confirmed in KD/L for 1858 as no 58. However, around 1861 he closed the business and by 1871 was living at Horsham in retirement, where he died. The name is a common one in Sussex but it is not known if he had any previous links with the county as he was born in London.
(My thanks to Ray Brown for the information about the glass in Hobart. See http://stainedglassaustralia.wordpress.com/category/thomas-wilmshurst/)
G C Wilson
Geoffrey Cecil Wilson (1887-1958) was a pupil of Sir Guy Dawber (1861-1938) and subsequently became S J Tatchell’s partner in London in c1923; there was a third member of the partnership, E H Bourchier, who remains to be fully identified, though he is known to have had links with another local architect of the period, C H Murray. Most of the shops and commercial buildings he designed are in Eastbourne, where he did much work at the College, of which he himself was an old boy.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed (consultant): Eastbourne, – St Elisabeth (1935-38 – with Tatchell)
Henry Wilson (1864-1934) worked for J D Sedding after training as an architect with J O Scott and John Belcher (1841-1914). He assisted Sedding with his masterpiece of Holy Trinity, Sloane Street and took over his practice after Sedding’s sudden death, completing the projects in hand. The two men shared a belief in the supremacy of the architect in uniting the talents of all the artists and craftsmen involved in the construction of a building. From 1896 to 1901 he was editor of the Architectural Review and he also wrote about architecture more widely. He was lacking in confidence over the practical side of architecture and in consequence moved towards church fittings, particularly metalwork and sculpture with some glass also, a development which was reflected in his membership of the Art Workers Guild, of which he became master in 1917. He was also celebrated for his exotic jewellery designs. He spent his final years in France and his obituary in The Times criticised the fussiness of his larger scale work with no mention of his architectural background.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Times 9 March 1934; DNB
Altered: Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew (1895-1898 – not carried out)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew, fittings
H W Wilson
Harry Warren Wilson can be identified with certainty between 1924 and 1969, but according to Barrie and Wendy Armstrong he may have been a pupil of R Anning Bell around 1920. The 1924 reference is the first occasion on which he exhibited at the RA, which he continued to do until 1952. His glass was made at the Glass House in Fulham, in the area where he lived until he moved to Kingston, Surrey. He also painted murals and produced mosaics, of which there is one of 1951 at the London School of Economics.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – Christ the King, South Patcham; Fittleworth
R W Winfield
Glassmakers of Birningham (see under T W Camm)
Winter and Co
A Hastings company that produced memorials, though only two both dated 1823 are known for certain. There are several persons of the name at slightly later dates in the town. George Winter of Isabella Cottage, stonemason, appears only in PD 1839 and in the 1832 edition of PD there are two possibles, both called James. One, the more probable, is a stonemason with two addresses in Priory Street and Courthouse Street and the other is a bricklayer in Bourne Street. It is likely that the two stonemasons at least are connected with the maker of memorials, if not the same.
Memorials: Hastings, – All Saints (2)
J Wippell and Co Wippell Mowbray Studios
The firm had emerged in its present form by 1851 out of a long established Exeter supplier of cloth and clothing. As well as being funeral directors, they became ecclesiastical purveyors with a shop in London from 1897, which still exists in Westminster. Their earliest glass dates from 1896 and G B Cooper-Abbs was later chief designer; other designers included F W Cole and R Coomber. Most of the company’s fittings in the first half of the C20 remained gothic, though W H R Blacking with his more eclectic taste was one of their designers. In 1969 Wippell’s acquired the church fittings business of A R Mowbray (and with it the Warham Guild (see this section above)) and the joint stained glass workshop became known as the Wippell, Mowbray Studios (WM). The company is particularly well known today for vestments.
Fittings: Coates, reredos; Worthing, – St John, West Worthing, unspecified
Glass: Coleman’s Hatch; Horsted Keynes; Jarvis Brook (WM)
For Thomas Witney see Thomas of Witney
R S Witting
Robert Stanley Witting (1920-92) was an architect whose office was at 35, The Hornet, Chichester. Nothing about his background nor other examples of his work have yet come to light.
Extended: Shoreham Beach (1971)
William Kimber Wonham (1797-1877) was a builder of High Street, Bognor in 1839 (PD), 1845 (KD) and 1851, who was born in South Bersted, now a part of Bognor, and died at Ross on Wye, Herefordshire, whence his wife came. He was active in the early development of Bognor as a resort. His father was called Daniel and William is highly likely in turn to be related to if not, as the dates of birth might suggest, the father of a further Daniel Wonham (1839-92), land valuer and estate agent, also born at Bersted, who was visiting Ross in 1881 and in due course also died there.
Designed: Bognor Regis, – St John the Baptist, Steyne (1821 and c1834 – dem)
F D Wood
Francis Derwent Wood (1871-1926) was born in Keswick, the son of the manager of a pencil making works, and after schooling on the continent studied at the National Art Training School in London from 1887. He then assisted Alphonse Legros (1837-1911) at the Slade School, before becoming assistant to Sir Thomas Brock (1847-1922), whose best known work is the Victoria Memorial outside Buckingham Palace, on which Wood worked. As his reputation grew, he was much sought after as a sculptor of public works and a designer of architectural carving. From 1918 he was professor of sculpture at the Royal College of Art, as well as being elected as an RA. He designed many war memorials, notably that to the Machine Gun Corps at Hyde Park Corner, and carved the wreaths on the Cenotaph. He is buried at Amberley.
R D Wood
For Ralph Denison Wood, see under Lefevre, Wood and Royle.
F A Woodhouse
Francis Arthur Woodhouse was a glass designer whose existence is known only from the single window of 1868 at Bury which is given to him. No person of the name and right occupation is listed in any directory for London or Sussex, the areas where he is most likely to have been active. It is possible that he was an amateur, though there is no record of a person of precisely that name.
James Woodman (1823-97) was a Gloucestershire man, who became an architect and surveyor though the circumstances of his early life and training are unknown. He moved to Sussex and appears at Hove with a private address in Cliftonville. Later he also had what was probably a professional one at 17 Prince Albert Street, Brighton. He can reasonably be identified with the ‘Mr Woodman’ who restored Preston and he is known to have worked as far afield as Sandown, Isle of Wight (B 19 p828).
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Holy Trinity, Blatchington Road, (1863-68)
Restored: Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, Preston (1874)
W Woodman senior
William Woodman senior (c1654-1731?) was a London sculptor who was first apprenticed to a haberdasher before becoming a mason. Much of his work consisted of architectural carving, especially for country houses, but he also produced monuments. Some of these are quite ambitious, but though technically assured, are often rather old fashioned in design. He was assisted by his wife in his business, which was taken over by his son, also William.
Monument: Barcombe (attr)
J F Woodward
For details of relevant work by John Francis Woodward of Hastings, see Stevens Partnership.
William Woodward (1846-1927) was a London architect, who was a pupil of Arthur Cates (1829-1901), before working in his office until 1891. He designed a block of flats on the Portland estate in St Marylebone (1910) and was also employed by the Crown Estates, designing commercial and public buildings, including several blocks in the newly rebuilt Regent Street and Piccadilly. He also worked on the interiors of R N Shaw‘s Piccadilly Hotel in the same area. In 1910-11 he was Mayor of Hampstead, where he lived, and in addition took an interest in ancient monuments. In 1908 he was in partnership with his son Charles Woodward (born 1877/78) when they designed a building in St James’s Street.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Seaford (1895)
Henry Woodyer (1816-96) was the son of a prosperous Guildford apothecary, who could afford to have his son educated at Eton. He was an associate and possibly pupil of W Butterfield and practised in Guildford before moving to a rural retreat not far away at Grafham, Surrey, where he also had his office in an adjacent building. His practice extended over the South and the Midlands so it is unsurprising that he was active in Sussex, close by. His restorations could be heavy-handed, but he had a compensating gift for the picturesque. His own churches reveal an eye for detail and great care over fittings.
Lit: J Elliott and J Pritchard: Henry Woodyer, Gentleman Architect, 2002; A Quiney: A Brief Account of the Life and Work of Henry Woodyer, AH (1995) pp192-218
Designed: Chichester, – All Saints, Portfield (1869-71)
Restored/extended: Berwick (1855-56); Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common (1857 and 1885); Bignor (1870s, plans); Bolney (1853-54); Catsfield (1847-49); Coldwaltham (1870-71); Crawley, – St John (1879-80); Eartham (1869); Fernhurst (1859 – attributed erroneously); Fittleworth (1871); Hardham (1866); Kirdford (1877-78); Linchmere (1856); Mid Lavant (1871-72); Patching (1888-89); Patcham (1887-88 – error for Patching); Rusper (1854-55); Slaugham (1854 – unexecuted); Sutton (1863-64 and 1877-79); Westbourne (c1861/2); Woodmancote (1868-73)
H E Wooldridge
Harry Ellis Wooldridge (1845-1917) was born in Winchester and studied painting at the RA Schools. There he met Sir E Burne-Jones, who had a great influence on his style, and after leaving he became assistant to H Holiday. His work in this capacity included helping Holiday with designs for glass whilst he was chief designer for J Powell and Sons; designs of 1874, given to him alone but made by Powell’s are at Colney and Wretham, both in Norfolk. Even after Wooldridge’s success as a painter allowed him to be independent, he continued to make designs for Powell’s to produce, as well as designing fittings, furniture and decorative schemes. He was an expert in the then obscure field of early music and in architecture was associated with Somers Clarke junior. In later life he was also Professor of Art at Oxford University.
Fitting: Brighton and Hove – St Martin, reredos
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Luke, Queen’s Park
E A Woore
Edward A Woore (1880-1960), who was universally known as ‘Davie’, was a pupil and later assistant of C Whall (see this section above). The two remained close and Woore later managed his studio for a short time before Whall’s death and afterwards also collaborated with Whall’s daughter Veronica (see also above). Previously, around 1918, he had had his own studio in Hammersmith and from 1924 to 1941 did so again in Putney, where he lived at 66 Deodar Road, the same road as so many of Whall’s followers; one of his assistants at this time was Rachel Tancock (see R de Montmorency). His later work shows him moving towards a more stylised and angular approach. During and shortly after World War II he made designs for J Bell and Co of Bristol, whose then owner, A W Robinson, was a friend and fellow-pupil of Whall. Thereafter, Woore returned to Putney before finally retiring to Wales in 1958.
Obit: BSMGPJ 13/2 (1961) p444
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, West Blatchington; Eastbourne, – Christ Church, – St Philip
G G Wornum
George Grey Wornum (1888-1957) was articled to his uncle, Ralph Selden Wornum (1847-1910), who designed mostly houses, before setting up in practice in 1910, though he was initially also active as a draughtsman for books. He was severely wounded in World War I, losing an eye, and on return set up with Louis de Soissons (1890-1962), though on occasion they worked separately. The association continued until 1930 and their work, almost always in a neo-Georgian idiom, consisted mostly of housing projects, some of them on a large scale. On his own after this, his best known work was the RIBA building in Portland Place (he was president in 1930-31). His entry for this won a competition that attracted 270 entries and his victory distressed some of his less traditionalist colleagues, though for Wornum himself it led to further work, including the interior of the liner Queen Elizabeth. After World War II, he laid out Parliament Square and his last work is at Bosham, where the churchyard gates are a memorial to his daughter. His American wife was a writer on architecture and he spent his last years in the USA, where he was to die, mainly for the sake of his health.
Lit: DNB; Obit: The Times 14 June 1957
Altered: Bosham (c1954)
W Worrall Worral and Co
William Worrall (1831-1911) appears as an artist in stained glass at 6 Laxton Place, Regents Park in 1870 (KD/L) and was also assistant to W G Saunders, before taking over his firm in 1880, after which it was known as Worrall and Co. Until W Burges‘s death shortly afterwards, he continued Saunders’s association with him. As with Saunders, little is known of his life, though he was living in 1881 in St Pancras. At this address were also living Harry (b1854) and Frank (b1862) Worrall, his sons, who also described themselves as Art Glass Painters and though they had moved out before 1891 they still gave the same occupation – they do not appear in later censuses. The firm lasted until at least 1902, the date of some glass at Gosbeck, Suffolk, though it would seem likely that by this time they were doing less work for churches.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael
Alan Wright was raised in Hastings, where he attended school from about 1970. After studying Fine Arts in Bristol and architectural stained glass at Swansea he returned there and opened a studio. He has also taught at the Hastings College of Arts and Technology. His work covers both designs for stained glass in churches and private and public buildings and he has also restored glass.
Source: Artist’s website
Glass: Hastings, – St Helen, Ore (new); – St Nicholas (Fisherman’s Church); – St Peter and St Paul, Parkstone Road (supervised); Salehurst; Sedlescombe; Westfield
James Wyatt (1746-1813) was the son of a Staffordshire builder and is the most celebrated, if not always the finest, of the prolific later C18 and C19 family of architects. He rose to become Surveyor-General, the leading position in the Office of Public Works, a government department. After travel and study in Italy, he became famous at an early age and thereafter had a large practice until his death in a coach accident. He designed many country houses and was proficient in classical and gothic, though as he grew older he showed a preference for the gothic for both houses and churches. His carelessness over the structural and financial sides of his practice, both official and private, was at times remarkable. It was probably the result of overwork and personal indiscipline and was offset only partly by his immense personal charm. In Sussex, Sheffield Park and West Dean Park are examples of his gothic houses (the latter has been altered) and Goodwood is one of his stranger classical designs. His apparent facility was criticised both by contemporaries and later writers, though in fact his knowledge of gothic was advanced for his time and in the classical style his rejection of the baroque was in the van of taste. He was also the first systematic restorer of the great cathedrals and his often cavalier treatment of earlier features he disliked, such as the destruction of the separate bell-tower at Salisbury, earned him the contempt of many contemporaries and of the Victorians (‘Wyatt the Destroyer’).
Lit: J M Robinson: The Wyatts – an Architectural Dynasty, Oxford 1979 (pp 56-89); DNB
Designed: East Grinstead, – St Swithun (1789-93)
Louis Wyatt was described as ‘Captain’ when he worked on the panelling at St Barnabas, Hove in 1909. It is not known what his contribution amounted to, whether just the design or the actual joinery as well. The only person of the name in Sussex during the period was Captain (Army) Louis Wyatt (1841-1926), who was born at Calais. He was living at Bury in 1891, described as a retired officer, and at Horsted Keynes in 1911. It is not known whether he possessed woodworking or other artistic skills nor how he could have been associated with St Barnabas, but he seems likely to be the right person.
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Barnabas, panelling
J D Wylson
John Frederick Duncan Wylson (1908-62) was of Scottish ancestry and his grandfather (James Wylson (1811-70) and father (Oswald Cane Wylson (1859-1925)) were also architects. Oswald Wylson was in partnership with Charles Long (d1906) and work by them is found as early as 1889, though this may predate a formal partnership. Although a designer of commercial buildings, Oswald was best known for designing music halls, theatres and cinemas, notably the much altered London Pavilion at Piccadilly Circus, and Wylson and Long worked on the Winter Garden, Blackpool. After Long’s death Oswald Wylson carried on the practice with unchanged name amd on similar lines with an address by 1914 in King William Street, Strand (KD/L) and still in the same area at Henrietta Street in 1924. J D Wylson studied at the Architectural Association and started what appears to have been his own practice in 1932 in Jermyn Street. After World War II he moved to Bayswater and taught at several colleges. In 1950 he moved again to Rye, though he kept his London office and R C Cox (RCC), who became his partner in 1961 continued it after his death. Wylson is said to have restored many churches in Kent and Sussex, so those listed below are unlikely to be a complete list of his work there.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Winchelsea Beach (1961-62)
Altered/extended: Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common (1962); Brighton and Hove, – St Philip (1958)
Repaired: Ashburnham (1961); Northiam (1966 – posthumous, i e RCC); Peasmarsh (1962-63 with RCC); Rye Harbour (1958-61); Winchelsea (1960)
Fitting: Wadhurst, tower screen
E A Wyon
Edward Alexander Wyon (1842-72) was a London architect, the son of Edward William Wyon (1811-85), a successful sculptor, who belonged to the family of medallists and engravers of this name who had emigrated to Britain from Cologne, Germany in the C18. The son was born in Bloomsbury and in 1871 lived with his mother at 70 Mornington Road whilst, in what sounds rather an unconventional arrangement, his father resided next door. E A Wyon had an office in Duke Street, Adelphi (KD/L), but he died at Hastings, where his only recorded work is to be found. He was also a poet and A Memorial Volume of Poems by him, which appeared posthumously in 1874 was reprinted as recently as 2008.
Lit (on the Wyon family): L Forrer: The Wyons, 1917
Designed: Hastings, – St John Hollington (1865-68)
York Glaziers Trust
This was founded in 1967 with the initial task of preserving and conserving the considerable quantity of mediaeval glass of York,in both the Minster and the other old churches in the city. More recently, it has extended its activities to cover later glass, some of it beyond the city, and it also produces some original glass, though the Trust is still most active in the north.
Glass: Kingston by Lewes
Arthur Young (1853-1924) was born in Stamford, Lincolnshire but is said to have been a pupil of Philip Causton Lockwood (1821-1908), Brighton Borough Surveyor and also studied in Switzerland. He was in the offices of B Ferrey, Somers Clarke junior and J T Micklethwaite, but started his own practice in 1877 – he was living in London on his own in 1881 and in 1884 was in practice by himself (B 46 p169). In 1891 he was married and living in Kensington and by 1911 he had moved to Richmond, Surrey. In 1914 his office was in South Square, Gray’s Inn (KD/L); two years later he had moved to Verulam Buildings in the same place. His latest known building is a Roman Catholic church of 1915 on the Finchley Road and most of the churches he designed were in fact Roman Catholic and in north London and Hertfordshire, though they included one of 1907 at Bexhill. The date when he went into partnership with the considerably younger A D Reid is not known, but it seems unlikely that the two were still together by the time the church at Lancing was built in view of the relatively long time that had elapsed since the last confirmed commission Young undertook. Though he did not die until the end of 1924, it is likely that Reid alone was responsible for this.
Designed: South Lancing (1924)
Alan Christopher Wyrill Younger (1933-2004) studied at the Central School, London and then until 1960 assisted C J Edwards. Subsequently he spent six years in the studio of L Lee, before opening his own studio in London in 1966, where his glass, both figurative and abstract, was made at the Glass House (see Lowndes and Drury) before he started to make his own. His glass is to be found in Westminster Abbey and several other cathedrals, including St Albans, Chester and Southwark.
Obit: Daily Telegraph, 8 June 2004
Glass: Fletching; Winchelsea Beach