Sir Mervyn Edmund Macartney (1853-1932) was the son of a doctor in what became Northern Ireland. After study at Oxford, he was a pupil of R N Shaw and started his own practice in 1882. He designed mainly public buildings and country houses in the Renaissance or Old English styles and was editor of the Architectural Review for 14 years. Despite his lack of experience in working on churches, he was appointed Surveyor to St Paul’s cathedral from 1906-30 and thoroughly restored it in the 1920s when it was threatened with collapse. He was a founder-member and later President of the Art Workers Guild, though his preference for the Renaissance was ahead of his time in the later C19. Most of his work in later life on churches (mainly alterations and fittings) was also in this style. With, among others, Sir R Blomfield in 1890 he was instrumental in establishing Kenton and Co, a short lived furniture designing and manufacturing business in London, run in accordance with Arts and Crafts principles.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Times 29 Oct 1932
Restored: Winchelsea (1931)
G M McDowell
George Moore McDowell (1855/56-1907) was born in France as a British subject, the son of an Irish naval surgeon, who by 1861 was living in St Helier, Jersey with his family. The circumstances of the son’s training are not known and little is known of his later life. The only certain reference in official records during this time was in 1891, when he was listed as a single man, described as an artist, painter and sculptor and living at 16 Red Lion Square, London. A record of George Moore Macdowell (sic), of 23 Great Castle Street, London W and other addresses in the area, who exhibited at the RA as a stained glass painter between 1882 and 1885 (Graves), must refer to the same man. At least at this time he appears to have been a freelance designer whose work includes at least one window (at Pakenham, Suffolk) that was made by Heaton, Butler and Bayne.
Frederick (or Frederic) Mace (c1804-after 1843) entered the RA Schools in 1818 and he is said to have been a pupil of Sir F Chantrey. He produced mainly busts that were exhibited at the RA, the last of them in 1838 and also several monuments, some at a later date. In 1841 he was living in Belgravia, Westminster, described as a sculptor. but there is no record of him later than 1843, the date of a monument by him at South Runcton, Norfolk.
Neil MacFadyen (1927-2017) became a partner in Carden and Godfrey in 1951 and during the time he was with the practice it also bore his name. He made a speciality of churches and also worked on several Oxford colleges and at least two cathedrals (one of them Ripon). He was also a gifted artist in watercolours. See under Carden and Godfrey for further details.
See Blackheath Society Newsletter, Spring 2010 p6
Ian McFarlane produced a design in 1978 for a window at Keymer church for Friars Glass Studios. There is no record of a glassmaker of this name, but its similarity to Whitefriars Glass, the name used by the former J Powell and Sons is obvious. However, the company no longer produced stained glass by the late 1970s. McFarlane too is not otherwise known.
J E M McGregor
John Eric Miers McGregor (1891-1984) was the son of Archie McGregor, a painter and sculptor, himself a member of an artistic family who who worked in the pre-Raphaelite style. The son became the partner of two Secretaries of SPAB, Albert Reginald Powys (1881-1936) and (Hugh) Thackeray Turner (1853-1937) and was himself honorary technical adviser to the Society from 1933 to 1969. As this suggests, he had a particular interest in the repair of old buildings, including churches, in which he was strongly influenced by the Arts and Crafts principles he had learned in his youth. However, he was also a practising architect, including the design of new housing, and in this area he took a particular interest in the application of new technology.
Obit: The Times 17 March 1984
Renovated: Elsted (1951)
Hugh MacIntosh and Partners L A MacIntosh
Founded by Hugh MacIntosh (1875-1950), the practice continued after his death at 33-35 High Street, Croydon. Without citing a source, Pevsner names the architect responsible for work at St John, Carlton Hill as L A Mackintosh (sic) (LAM), who was the son of the founder and took over the practice. Very little is known about him, even his first names, and he does not appear in the 1911 census details for the family; the youngest child listed was only one, so either he was born after this date or was absent, probably at boarding school.
Altered: Brighton and Hove, – St John, Carlton Hill (LAM – 1955-57)
Repaired: Salehurst (1952-57)
Sir B Mackennal
Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal (1863-1931) was born in Melbourne, Australia, the son of an architectural sculptor, with whom he studied before he came to London in 1882. There, he attended the RA Schools before studying further in Paris, where he was influenced by the Symbolists. On return he designed pottery for a period, but reverted to sculpture. He came under the influence of the late Victorian New Sculpture, but his work, often on a large scale and to be found in both Britain and Australia, becomes progressively more derivative after about 1900 – in the words of the DNB he became a ‘reliable and efficient sculptor to the Edwardian and Georgian establishment’. His work is to be found on major buildings of the period such as the Treasury in Parliament Street, London and there are several major public statues by him, including King Edward VII. He also produced portrait busts and in a related capacity his best known work was the head of George V for his coinage. Perhaps surprisingly, he did not become a full Royal Academician until 1922.
Memorial: Arundel (Fitzalan Chapel)
David Mackintosh (c1800(?)-1859), a native of Greenock, Scotland, was in London by 1823, when there is a record of his marriage there. He was still there when his younger daughter was baptised in 1828, after which there is a long gap in the records until 1844, when Pigot’s Directory shows him in Exeter. However, he did not sever his links with the capital, for in 1847 he signed himself as ‘Architect of Exeter and London’ on the plan of Ifield church submitted to the ICBS and on geographical grounds alone it seems more likely that it was from the latter that he worked on this restoration. From at least 1844 his main address in directories was 11 Verney Place, Exeter where he lived for the rest of his life. The 1851 census lists only his wife, Christina (born in 1801/02 in Scotland) there, but a surveyor and builder of the name in lodgings at Barnstaple (born in Edinburgh), must have been the same man on his travels – he had designed Holy Trinity church there in 1846. There is some uncertainty about his date of birth, for in this 1851 census he is said to have been aged 36, making him born about 1815, an impossibility in view of his marriage date. The approximate date of birth given above is based on reasonable guesswork. It is clear that by the 1850s Mackintosh was effectively based as an architect in Exeter only and he worked extensively in Devon and in at least one case Somerset for the rest of his life. Most of his work consisted of the restoration or reconstruction of churches, one of them in the romanesque style, but he also designed at least one large house. He died in Exeter at his home.
My thanks to Robert Cutts for providing further information about Mackintosh, including that about his family circumstances and likely birth date.
Restored: Ifield (1847)
The partnership was established around 2000 by Torquil and Ruth MacNeilage (RM), both experienced conservators, particularly of paintings and monuments, who are based at Talaton, Devon.
Conserved: Boxgrove, wall painting; Cuckfield, roof (RM only); Staplefield, painted decoration
Nothing further is known of the mason or statuary of this name who signs one of a group of monuments at Wartling which is dated 1847. The standard of his work and the fact that others in the same family were commemorated by London masons, suggests that he too came from there.
F Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown (1821-93) trained in Belgium and Paris as a painter and was also influenced by the German Nazarenes. After returning to England he became close to the pre-Raphaelites, though he was never a member of the Brotherhood. He was also close to William Morris (see this section below) and was one of the founders of Morris and Co. He designed glass and furniture for the company, but ceased to be involved with it after 1874. His subsequent career was uneven and included several years in the 1880s spent in Manchester, where he worked on murals for the new town hall.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael; Haywards Heath, – St Wilfrid
G Maile and Son Maile Studios
The firm of George Maile and Son, later known as Maile Studios, was founded in 1785 as monumental sculptors at 367 Euston Road, London. There is no fuller record of the founder, though at least one earlier sculptor of the name is known who may be.connected During the C19 the company did not deviate from its original purpose, producing memorials to be set up both inside churches and outside. They are widely distributed geographically (though none is in Sussex) and most are not in any way unusual for the time, though a memorial dated 1891 at Motcombe, Dorset is advanced in style for the date as it is neo-Georgian. A few mid-C19 names of members of the family are known (see Roscoe p787), including a George Maile in 1850. He is probably the statuary and mason of that name (born 1819/20), who in 1871 was living in Kentish Town and in retirement at Leyton in 1891, though no record of his death has been found. He was in turn the father of George Charles Maile (1849-1929), the first member of the family of whom there is a fuller record. He is described as a monumental sculptor and even after his death the family remained in charge, for he was followed by his son Clifford Sydney Maile (1887-1962) whose stated occupation was the same. In fact, before the death of G C Maile the company had extended its activities for in 1925 they were making ecclesiastical metalwork at the next-door premises and by about 1931 described themselves simply as ‘ecclesiastical craftsmen’, in which capacity they produced a variety of fittings for churches. They were clearly increasingly interested in glass during this period, though the earliest certain date for a window by them is 1936 at Preston, East Riding of Yorkshire and Roscoe notes a monument by them dated as late as 1952. In the 1930s the chief designer was H V Spreadbury, who has yet to be identified more fully. During the post-war period the firm moved first to Bayham Street, NW1, where they had previously had a workshop and then to Canterbury. A S Walker (AW) was their chief designer of glass at this time, though they also used outsiders like C J Edwards, R Baldwin and the shadowy F Baker (FB). Their latest known glass dates from 1996, much at the date when the firm is said to have closed finally.
Glass: Ashington; Burgess Hill, – St Andrew; Crawley, – St Peter (AW); Crawley Down (AW); Eastbourne, – Holy Trinity Trees (AW); Fairwarp; Forest Row; Hastings, – Emmanuel (FB); – St Helen, Ore; Newhaven; West Firle
J Malcott J Malcot
John Malcott or Malcot (c1777-1851) was the son and grandson of London masons of the same name; both variants of the name are known. As a sculptor and carver, this John Malcott was working in the family business by 1809 and during his time there the firm produced many monuments and tablets. He was equally known for his architectural sculpture and worked on buildings such as the new National Gallery and the restoration of the Temple church. In 1841 he described himself as a mason and lived in Streatham. The family firm existed until at least 1862, probably under his son.
Frank Mann designed glass for J Powell and Sons from at least 1888 and continued until well after 1900. He appears also to have worked on the technical and production side. This suggests he was an employee but very little is known about him.
Glass: Alfriston (made); Berwick; Brighton and Hove, – St Mary; Cocking; Coleman’s Hatch; Cowfold; East Lavant; Fittleworth; Hastings, – St Helen, Ore (new); Lewes, – St Michael, – S Thomas; Newick; Nutley; Peasmarsh; Ringmer; Telscombe; Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene
Samuel Manning (1786-1842) was closely related (most probably a brother) to Charles Manning (1776-1812), who in 1808 became partner of J Bacon junior. In turn, Samuel Manning became Bacon’s partner by 1819 and after a period of working jointly, took over the extensive business almost entirely. Though the name of Bacon survived for commercial reasons, Bacon himself left London in 1823 and played little part thereafter. Much of Manning’s work consisted of fairly routine tablets. The business appears to have outlived him for he had a son, another Samuel, (b1820/21) who was also a sculptor and who was presumably responsible for the various monuments signed with the firm’s name that are found dated after the father’s death down to at least 1858.
Memorials: Chichester, – St Mary, Rumboldswyke; East Lavington; Rye (jointly with Bacon); Trotton (two); Wartling
F O Marchant
Francis Oliver Marchant (1887-1961) was first a pupil and then assistant of Ernest Newton (1856-1922), chiefly known as a designer of houses in south London. Marchant later settled in Eastbourne and worked on local authority housing projects in Kent and Sussex. He also designed private houses and worked with Sir Giles G Scott.
Restored: Etchingham (1937-38)
Robert Marchant (1871-1945) was an architect of London – successive editions of WWA give his address as 2 Bedford Square, WC1. He repaired a large number of churches, particularly in Kent and Somerset, and he also produced drawings of them.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Repaired: Ewhurst Green (1926-27)
H S Marks
Henry Stacy Marks (1829-98) initially demonstrated his artistic skills by helping his father in his coach-building business until these earned him a place at the RA Schools, which he followed by a brief period of study in Paris before setting up as a painter. Much of his early work had a Shakespearean theme but later he was known as a painter of birds in water-colours and became an RA. In his younger days, he had heavy family responsibilities after his father emigrated to Australia and he was forced to supplement his income by producing various kinds of illustration, as well as designs for decorative schemes. He also produced designs during this period for stained glass, particularly for Clayton and Bell and J Powell and Sons.
Frederick Marrable (1818-72) was the son of Sir Thomas Marrable (1787-1850), Secretary to the Board of Green Cloth, an office which was a part of the Royal Household and concerned mainly with audit matters and legal issues. The son was articled to E Blore and then went abroad. On return he went into practice and designed churches and public buildings, mainly in London, but he did not prosper and in 1856 became superintending architect to the Metropolitan Board of Works when it was established. Much of his work for this body consisted of planning and carrying out schemes for new streets, in particular Garrick Street in Covent Garden. In that street he designed the Garrick Club, probably his best known building. This was after he had resigned his post in 1860 in a dispute over pay and in the last years of his career he was chiefly active in arbitration cases, as well as dealing in property, though he did not entirely forsake architecture. Thus, he restored Brockdish church. Norfolk in 1864-66, as well as designing a church in Deptford in 1866-70. Even in the year of his death he was associated with the new Bridewell hospital in the City. The statement that he painted a stained glass window for St Mary Magdalene, Hastings (probably no longer extant) is ambiguous, since it does not reveal whether he was also the designer, but suggests that he had at least some skills in this specialised area.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 30 pp500-01; DNB
Designed: Hastings, – St Mary Magdalene (1852)
Glass: Hastings, St Mary Magdalene (probably destroyed)
Thomas Marsh, of whom little is known, produced numerous tablets which are dated between about 1820 and 1854 though his workshop at 20 New Road, Fitzroy Square, London is recorded only once (LPOD 1929). However, the owner of a marble and stone works in Upper Fitzroy Street, New Road in 1856 (Post Office Directory) with the same name is probably the same or related.
Edward Marshall (1597/98-1675) was apprenticed to a mason. At various times he worked in Westminster and the City, though his earlier monuments show the influence of the Southwark sculptors, who were mostly of Dutch origin; some later ones incorporate busts and other classical features. One of the main workshops for brasses is associated with him and one brass is certainly by him, whilst the workshop undertook the alterations to the Bartelot brasses at Stopham. Later in life he worked primarily as a mason on buildings and appears to have designed at least one. After the Restoration he was Master Mason in the Royal Office of Works and worked especially at Windsor castle.
Brasses: Ardingly, brass (attr); Stopham (alterations)
Memorials: Berwick (attr); Cuckfield (attr); Eastbourne, – St Mary; Horsham, – St Mary (attr); Ringmer, (attr)
John Marshall (1816-90) was born at Boxgrove and in 1851 he was working in Brighton. By 1871 he had moved to Portfield in the parish of Oving on the outskirts of Chichester, where he worked for Sir George G Scott as clerk of works during the reconstruction of the tower and spire of the cathedral. In 1874 he was still a builder, but had moved into the city (KD) and by 1878 (ibid) he was in business at Midhurst, where his wife had been born. He was still there in 1881 and and also died there. Though mainly a contractor, e g for the restoration of St Pancras, Chichester (B 27 p354), he appears to have acted as architect for the restoration of East Dean (W).
Restored: East Dean (W) (1870-71)
Joshua Marshall (1628-78) was the eldest son of Edward Marshall (see this section above) and was probably trained by him. He succeeded his father as Master Mason to the Crown. Before the great fire of London in 1666 he was chiefly a maker of monuments, but he then became active in the rebuilding of the City. He is known to have worked on six churches and the new Temple Bar, all in close collaboration with Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723).
Memorials: Cuckfield (attr); Ticehurst (attr)
P P Marshall
Peter Paul Marshall (1830-1900) was the son of an Edinburgh artist and became a surveyor and sanitary engineer in London. By the late 1850s he was close to the pre-Raphaelites as his father-in-law was an early patron. He was introduced to W Morris (see this section below) by F Madox Brown (see this section above) and has been credited with the initial suggestion of founding a decorative arts firm that was to become Morris and Co, of which he was one of the first partners. He was an amateur painter who exhibited quite widely, so he must have been of some competence – he is known to have produced some designs, particularly for stained glass, in the initial years of the firm and long after he had quarrelled with Morris produced at least one more. The quarrel was over the dissolution of the original firm in 1875 and in a move that can hardly have met with Morris’s approval he was from 1878 to 1898 city engineer in Norwich, where there is still a bridge designed by him. He continued to paint for the rest of his life, particularly during his brief retirement to Teignmouth, Devon.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael
T and G Marshall
Nothing is known of this firm of masons and statuaries except that their workshop was in Deptford and that though only seven monuments are known, they are spread over a period of more than 40 years, from c1790 to c1832. It is thus probable that many of their monuments were unsigned and await identification.
John Marten (1728-1814) came from Tenterden, Kent, where he is buried, and his works are found in churches between there and Rye. They are typical of the style of the mid-C18, using coloured marbles. He was presumably the J Marten whose signature is found on Royal Arms at two churches in the vicinity, Reading Street and Burmarsh, both in Kent.
Memorials: Icklesham; Rye
A single monument at Lindfield dated 1830 is signed ‘Martin of Lewes’ and Llewellyn (p220) suggests he may have been associated with L Parsons there, but no further reference is known.
‘E Martin’ is known only from a single signature, in this form,on the Royal Arms of 1845 at Warminghurst. He was clearly a painter, probably of signs etc and thus primarily an artisan.
Painted: Warminghurst, Royal Arms
Leonard Martin (1869-1935) was a pupil of John Giles (died 1900), best known as designer of public buildings in London, of whom Sir Edwin Lutyens (1879-1944) is said also to have been a pupil. He went into practice with Henry J Treadwell (1860-1910) in 1890. They designed commercial and other buildings in a free, picturesque gothic, mainly in London, where their office was in Charing Cross Road. According to a profile in Arch J (10 (1899-1900) p237), Treadwell was chiefly involved in the business side and Martin concentrated on design. He designed schools and houses but only one other church, at Cobham, Surrey where he lived. After Treadwell’s death, he practised alone until 1929, when his office was at Waterloo Place and he went into partnership with E C Davies.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Extended: Fairwarp (1931-35 – with Davies)
P M Martin
Philippa Mary Martin (b1944) lives in Redhill, Surrey and trained at Reigate School of Art. She briefly assisted L Lee. Much of her glass is to be found in Surrey churches and she has also undertaken restorations.
D F Martin-Smith
Donald Frank Martin-Smith (1900-84) had a partner named Beswick in the mid-1930s, when they designed at least one block of flats in Kensington and by the early 1950s his partner was H Braddock. At this later date the practice was involved in the wave of new and rebuilt churches in London during the post-war period and in the mid-1960s, near its end, there was a third partner named Lipley. However, the first church Martin-Smith had designed, apparently on his own, was one of the most influential churches of the inter-war period, the John Keble Memorial Church at Mill Hill in North London (1935-37). This shows Scandinavian influence and is remarkable for its use of reinforced concrete, as well as its liturgical innovations, for which Martin-Smith was not primarily responsible.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Crawley, – St Mary (1958)
A E Matthew
Alexander Edward Matthew (1903-72) was an architect in London, where he was partner at several addresses in Gray’s Inn of W E Monro (see this section below) and W E Seth-Smith in the 1950s. Later he moved to Windsor.
Designed: Eastbourne, – St John Meads (1955-57)
A E T Matthews
Albert Edward Thurman Matthews (b1917) was a Scot who in 1948 became the partner of R G Covell. Their practice was in London, where they were prolific designers of churches in the diocese of Southwark. They were also in practice in Scotland, where they did much work with various partners, especially university and commercial buildings in Edinburgh and Aberdeen.
Repaired: Groombridge (1968-69 with Covell)
Sir E Maufe
Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe (1883-1974) was born in Bradford with the name Muff, which he later changed to what was said to be the original version – Brown, Muff’s department store, his family’s business, was until 1978 the most highly regarded in the city. He was a pupil in London of William Alfred Pite (1860-1949) and during this time lived in William Morris’s Red House at Bexleyheath. This fired his interest in the Arts and Crafts movement; he later joined the Art Workers Guild. Unusually, he interrupted his pupillage to study at Oxford, but finished his training at the Architectural Association. Apart from some houses in his early years, he designed mostly churches and some public buildings. Contemporary Scandinavian architecture was an influence and his book on modern churches is illustrated from foreign examples. He developed a simplified form of gothic, which is exemplified by his most prominent work in this field, Guildford cathedral. In later life, he lived at Buxted in an old house he had himself adapted. As well as three parish churches in Sussex, he also designed in 1960 the chapel of the Boys’ Grammar School at Lewes, now the Priory School. It is in very much the same idiom.
Lit: BAL Biog file; DNB; Obit: The Times 14 Dec 1974
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Bishop Hannington Memorial Church (1938); – St Nicholas, Saltdean (1962-64); Eastbourne, – St Mary, Hampden Park (1952-54)
Margery E May can be traced in the records from 1950 to 1972. She trained at the Slade School and between 1950 and 1956 exhibited at the RA as a painter and engraver, mainly of landscapes. She was then living in Winchelsea. Her interest in stained glass appears to have developed after this. In later life she is known to have lived in Hastings and it is possible that the Mrs Margery May, listed at 2 Trinity Villas in directories between 1966 and 1975 is the same. If so, more precise identification may be difficult in view of her presumed change of name on marriage. She was certainly married for in 1967 she designed a window in Iden church in memory of her husband.
Glass: Eastbourne, – All Souls; – Holy Trinity; Ewhurst Green; Hastings, – St Clement; Iden; Worthing, – St Symphorian, Durrington
Mayer and Co
The firm was founded in Munich in 1863 by Josef Gabriel Mayer (1808-93), a respected teacher of arts and crafts, under royal patronage – the Bavarian monarchy from the 1840s had taken a direct interest in the subject and supported a Munich state glass manufactory (see this section below). Mayer’s company was thus favourably situated and was able to establish its first foreign representation in London within two years, in 1865. This indicated the significance of the British market and though the company initially supplied much of its glass to Roman Catholic churches, many Anglican ones followed. Its address was initially in Holles Street, Cavendish Square, but by 1874 it had prospered sufficiently to move to Grosvenor Street (KD/L). During this time it employed British artists, including W Dixon, and at its peak the company employed over 500 workers. Although its chief business remained glass, it also produced other fittings, mostly carved work. Its British presence closed abruptly with the outbreak of war in 1914, but between 1930 and 1934 it reopened at 238 Belsize Road, Kilburn (KD/L), though the operation must have remained far smaller than previously. Meanwhile, in the 1920s the parent concern in Munich had added mosaics to its repertoire and it remains in business under the fifth generation of the Mayer family with the name of Mayer’sche Hofkunstanstalt. It is particularly known for its restoration work of both glass and mosaics, but appears to limit its activities to Germany.
Glass: Arundel; Brighton and Hove, – St Mary; – St Saviour (formerly, moved to St Augustine, Stanford Avenue; current fate uncertain); Burgess Hill, – St John; Buxted, – St Margaret; East Chiltington; Etchingham; Hastings, – St Matthew; Horsham, – St Mark (gone); Lindfield; Lurgashall; Mayfield; Petworth; Plumpton; Rottingdean; Southwick; Stanmer; Staplefield; Storrington; West Wittering
Fittings: Hastings, – Christ Church, London Road, stations of the cross
Josef Mayr, who appears during the 1880s and 1890s, probably belonged to one of the families of woodcarvers in Oberammergau, Germany, who were also performers in the Passion Play there. Indeed, he may be the same Josef Mayr, woodcarver, who played Christ at least twice during this period and died in 1903. The Passion Play was a topic of great interest to A D Wagner and other High Churchmen of the period.
Fittings: Brighton, – St Martin, reredos; Withyham, – St John, reredos
John Medland (1840-1913) was born in Gloucester into a family of architects and, after articles with his father, becane a pupil and then assistant to Sir George G Scott before going into practice in 1879. He designed reredoses and other church fittings, including needlework. He shared an address in Chancery Lane with fellow former-pupils of Scott, R Nevill and C E Powell and his association with Powell was particularly close – in 1881 they were elected ARIBA on the same day (Proc RIBA). All three worked on the restoration of Rotherfield and though Powell took the lead at Arlington, Medland was also involved.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Arlington (1890-94); Rotherfield (1889-93)
Reginald Melhuish was already an ARIBA when he designed the church at Bevendean in 1963 and added a comment to a website on this subject in 2006.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – Holy Nativity, Bevendean (1963)
J B Mendham
John Bernard Mendham (1886-1951) was the son of an engineer from St Leonards and spent part of his youth in Argentina. After his return, he followed his father by qualifying as an engineer in Birmingham, where he went into practice as an architect in 1911, rising to be Architect and Surveyor to the Bournville Trust (i e Cadbury’s). In World War I he worked for the government and subsequently was in private practice in London from 1922-39. He retained links with Sussex and is likely to be connected with Mrs Sophie Mendham, the benefactress of Emmanuel, Hastings. Though living in Kent at the time of his death, he was buried at Hastings. Most of his churches were Roman Catholic, including that at Rye and two others in Sussex.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: RIBAJ 59 (1952) p230
Designed: Bexhill, – St Michael (1929); Hastings, – St Ethelburga (1929)
Clive Mercer is first recorded as an architect in Chichester in 1962 and became Diocesan Architect. His practice, Clive Mercer Associates, was in 1988 renamed Clive Mercer Architects Co-operative Ltd, in which his daughter Caroline was also involved. On her retirement in 2007 it was merged with Russell Hanslip Associates of Highgate, London and became HMDW Architects Limited. The practice is still located in the redundant church of St Mary Rumboldswyke in Chichester, which had been adapted as offices by Clive Mercer.
Much of the information about this practice has been kindly provided by Simon Dyson of HMDW Architects Ltd
Designed: Crawley, – St Mary Magdalene, Bewbush (1999)
Altered: Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Portslade by Sea (2004); Haywards Heath, – Ascension (1997); – St Wilfrid (1999); Horsham, – St Mary (2002)
Henry Mew was a builder in Brighton who first appears in 1829, when he worked on A Wilds’s Brighton vicarage (Wagner and Dale p22). In 1832 his address was 35 Mighell Street, Brighton (Pigot’s Directory). How far he was an architect and how far he worked to the plans of others is not clear. Colvin (4th ed p691) has found a reference to him in 1853, though he is not in Pigot’s Directory of 1840, and Elleray (2004) gives a latest date of 1860. There may have been others in his family who were working in Brighton in related occupations – there is a John Mew, who was a painter in Spring Gardens in 1841 with a son called Henry.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed(?): Brighton and Hove, – All Souls, Eastern Road (1833-34 – dem)
Polly Meynell studied textile design at Brunel University and worked at Watts and Co until setting up her own business at Barnham in 1997. On her website she describes herself as specialising in architectural textiles, both ecclesiastical and secular, but her interests extend to the design of fittings more generally.
Fittings etc: Crawley, – St Andrew Furnace Green (banners); Seaford (altar table)
Richard Meynell was elected to the RIBA in 1973 and after a move from Southsea in 2007, now lives and works at Birdham. He is architect to the Dean and Chapter of Chichester cathedral, for whom he has designed a new restaurant in the cloisters, and to a number of other churches including Bosham.
Restored: Ford (2000); Earnley (2004)
Michael of Canterbury
Michael of Canterbury was a master-mason who is first recorded in Canterbury in 1275 and to whom a tomb for Bishop Bradfield (d1283) in Rochester cathedral has been attributed. He appears to have worked in that city or elsewhere on behalf of the cathedral-priory for about 15 years, but by 1290 he had settled in London, where he worked extensively for the King, particularly on parts of Westminster abbey and, the chapel of St Stephen in the Palace of Westminster. Professor Christopher Wilson sees him as one of the most influential master-masons of the final years of the C13. The last record of him is in 1321, when he was still involved in the building of St Stephen’s chapel, and John Harvey (Dictionary p45) suggests he died shortly afterwards.
Designed/built: Winchelsea (attr)
Lit: C Wilson: Gothic Metamorphosed: The Choir of St Augustine’s Abbey in Bristol and the Renewal of European Architecture around 1300 in J Cannon and B Williamson: The Medieval Art, Architecture and History of Bristol Cathedral, Woodbridge, 2011, pp69-147
J T Micklethwaite
John Thomas Micklethwaite (1843-1906) came from a prosperous Yorkshire manufacturing background and became a pupil and later assistant of Sir George G Scott, in whose office he met his future partner, Somers Clarke junior, with whom he worked from 1876 after a period on his own. The partnership ended formally on Somers Clarke’s retirement in 1892, though both names continued in use and on at least one occasion the two collaborated as before. In his youth Micklethwaite had contemplated ordination and in addition he was to write extensively on the history of church architecture. These two factors combined with his interest in liturgy to produce Modern Parish Churches (1874), which had a major influence on the emergence of an aesthetic of Late Victorian gothic, including liturgy, which was at odds with the approach of the earlier Victorians, being notably more pragmatic; Micklethwaite is said to have accepted that galleries, anathema to the Ecclesiologists, had their place and his preferred form of gothic where possible was Perpendicular. He even admired some classical churches and his restorations are remarkable by the standards of his day for their sensitivity, perhaps unsurprisingly as he was in sympathy with the principles of the SPAB. He was also a strong believer in installing modern works of art in churches. In 1898 he became architect and surveyor to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster and had previously been one of the founder-members of the Art Workers Guild (of which he was master in 1893), as well as of the Alcuin Club, which gave full rein to his interest in liturgical matters. In addition, he was an Honorary Consulting Architect to the ICBS.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 91 p516: DNB; P Howell: ‘A man at once strong in the present and reverent of the past’ – John Thomas Micklethwaite in C Webster (ed) 2011 pp199-229
Restored/extended: Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas (1900); – St Peter (1890-1906); Ifield (1883); Lindfield (1883-84); Winchelsea (1903-06, completed in 1911 by A G Wallace)
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Patrick, reredos (with Somers Clarke junior)
H R Mileham
Harry Robert Mileham (1873-1957) studied painting at Lambeth Art School and the RA Schools before going to Italy. After his return he became a member of the Art Workers Guild. He lived at Leigh-on-Sea, Eaaex and then in Hove until his death, painting oils and watercolours in a late Pre-Raphaelite style, oblivious to the changes around him. As well as work for churches, he produced portraits and historical works and illustrated books. He designed stained glass from 1908, mostly for the local firm of Cox and Barnard, though he made his own on occasion. D Hadley has found a record of a freelance artist named simply as Mileham, who in 1914 produced some cartoons for glass at Wakefield cathedral for J Powell and Sons; the date would fit.
Lit: P Mileham: Harry Mileham 1873-1957, Paisley, 1995
Glass: Bexhill, – St Stephen; Brighton and Hove; – St Andrew, Church Road, Hove; – St Anne, Burlington Street (formerly); – Chapel Royal; – Good Shepherd; – St Thomas, Hove; High Hurstwood
Paintings: Brighton and Hove – Chapel Royal, painted reredos; – Good Shepherd, paintings of reredos; – St Thomas, Hove (now in St Mary, Brighton), Stations of the Cross
An unidentified designer or craftsman working for J Powell and Sons and known only by his surname of Miller produced mosaics in 1923 (a late date for these) that were placed in Climping church.
Joseph Miller (1812/13-98) was a poor boy of Ringmer, where he was born, and was trained as a bricklayer at parish expense. He had advanced sufficiently by 1840 to acquire a property in the Broyle Lane area, where he lived for the rest of his life and developed several properties, both there and elsewhere in the village. By 1859 directories show his business had developed into that of a full-scale builder and in 1861 and 1871 he employed six men. His business was in due course taken over by his son, also Joseph (1835-1912). The father restored Ringmer church to his own plans in 1864 and in 1872 he tendered unsuccessfully, apparently as a builder only, for further work at the church.
My thanks to John Kay of Ringmer for much of the above information about Joseph Miller
Restored: Ringmer (1864)
William Miller (1803-after 1881), whose earliest address in London was in the City, designed windows chiefly in East Anglia and Kent. He appears to have trained as a plumber and glazier and produced stained glass in a logical extension of these trades. Thomas Henry Wyatt (1807-80) used him from the 1840s and the earliest known glass by him to survive is of 1845 at Tarrant Gunville, Dorset, a church on which Wyatt had worked. By 1848 glass had become his main field for he is described as a ‘painter in stained glass’ (KD/L). As that at Pagham shows, much of his early glass was heraldic, though his east window at Barfreston, Kent (1847 – since replaced) was praised by Charles Winston for ‘its exact imitation of early English Glass’. For most of his long career his address was in Brewer Street, Soho, but he then moved to Blenheim Street off Oxford Street, where he is listed for the last time as a stained glass artist in 1880 (KD/L). In the following year he described himself as a glass painter (unemployed) and was living in Chapel Street, St George’s Hanover Square. He is likely to have died shortly afterwards.
Glass: Hastings, – St Mary Magdalene; Pagham; Stanmer (formerly and attr)
W O Milne
William Oswald Milne (1847-1927) was the son of a vicar in Norfolk, who became a pupil of Sir A W Blomfield. On occasion Blomfield recommended Milne and he was to do much work in Norfolk, though he never gave up his London address, which from 1875 was in Great Marlborough Street. Also present at this address was T E C Streatfeild and though they were listed separately in directories (KD/L), they were sufficiently close for one of Milne’s elder sons to bear the name Streatfeild After Streatfeild’s death, Milne remained there by himself until he moved to Chancery Lane. In 1890-1902 he and J C Hall were partners, though Milne is given as the solely responsible for the restoration of Swaffham church, Norfolk which started before his partnership with Hall in 1888 and continued until 1895. From 1906-16 his son Oswald Partridge Milne (1881-1968) joined him and under the son the practice continued. Its most prominent work is to be found at Claridge’s Hotel, London, where he designed some of the main interiors around 1930. As well as restoring churches, the father designed hotels, houses and schools.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored/extended: Ashburnham (1894 – as M and Hall); Brighton, – St Augustine (1913-14); Eastbourne, – St Michael, Ocklynge (1910); Ticehurst (1902 – as M and Hall); Warbleton (1882)
H V Milner
Henry Victor Milner (1864-1942 – his dates are also to be found as 1866-1944 but official records all give the earlier dates) was the son of an upholsterer in Hampstead, though seemingly quite a prosperous one as there were three servants in his household in 1881. The son was in business for himself as a glassmaker at an early age, though details of his training are not known and precise dates are sparse. A window by him at Hyde, Cheshire is dated rather loosely to the 1880s and by 1891 he described himself specifically as an artist in stained glass, though in fact his work ranged more widely; even at this early date he produced more than one painted reredos, including one at Bramley, Hampshire and the painted panels for another at Holy Trinity, Hull date from 1908. He was at this time living in Hampstead, and may already have begun an association with Burlison and Grylls. This probably lasted as long as he remained in Hampstead, which electoral records show was still the case in 1920. He subsequently moved to Dunstable, Bedfordshire, where he spent the rest of his life, remaining active in the field of glass-making into the 1930s ( e g at Dewsbury, West Yorkshire). He designed a lot of glass for T Moore (see this section below).
Glass: Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common
M H Minter
Muriel Herne Minter (1897-1983, born Cooper) exhibited at the RA as a painter and engraver between 1921 and 1948 and was active as a stained glass artist until the 1960s. She was born at Alverstoke, Hampshire and trained at the Slade under William Rothenstein (1872-1945). The listings for her stained glass in Sussex call her ‘Miss’ and she is described as ‘Miss Minster’ (an evident misprint) in what must be the earliest reference in a London directory, KD for 1927, when she was living at Park Walk, Chelsea. However, there can be no serious doubt about her identity with the person properly known as ‘Mrs’ Minter’, since both lived, at least subsequently, in London SW19.
Glass: Climping; Ford
The firm of Minton went by several names in the period between its foundation in Stoke on Trent in 1793 by Thomas Minton (1765-1836) and its demise as a separate entity in 1991. It quickly gained a high reputation and attained its highpoint in the mid-C19 as a supplier of tableware, both earthenware and porcelain. In the field of church decoration it also achieved success through a separate subsidiary (Minton, Hollins and Co) as one of the main manufacturers of tiles, which were used also in the new palace of Westminster; there is little doubt that their work is to be found in more churches than those listed below. The manufacture of tiles followed the involvement from 1842 of A W N Pugin, who became friendly with Thomas’s son Herbert Minton (1793-1858), then in charge of the company. Thanks to Pugin the firm’s tiles were included in the mediaeval court of the Great Exhibition of 1851 which he organised.
Lit: P Atterbury: The Chronicles of Minton, Art Quarterly, summer 2015 pp72-76
Tiles: Appledram; Barlavington; Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas (old parish church – formerly); Etchingham
A B Mitchell
Arnold Bidlake Mitchell (1864-1944) was a pupil of Robert Stark Wilkinson (1844-1936) and among the practices in which he worked as an assistant after finishing his articles was that of Ernest George (1839-1922) and Harold Ainsworth Peto (1854-1933). After he went into practice for himself in 1886 he became, like them, best known for his domestic architecture, which is mostly in the arts and crafts style and much is to be found in Harrow, where he lived, and the neighbouring area. From around 1894 he was the partner of Alfred Morris Butler (1862-1946) and together they designed several schools in north London. Mitchell on his own also did a small amount of work on Harrow school, whilst designing the new University College School in Hampstead (1905-07) as well. Among other designs are several substantial commercial buildings in London dating from the 1920s, as well as further schools and several parish halls. Only one modest church by him, a former mission church in Sudbury, Middlesex, is known. His work is to be found all over the country, notably in Cambridge, and in his other buildings he used a variety of styles, including classical and mediaeval. He spent his final years in Lyme Regis, Dorset, where he designed a number of buildings.
Designed: East Grinstead, – St Mary, parish hall
G S Mitchell
George Sharman Mitchell (1867-1949) was born in Leicester. The details of his professional training are unknown, but by 1891 he was living and working as a land agent and surveyor at Liss, Hampshire and was still there in 1901. What must be the same man next appears on three inter-connected occasions in 1906. First, he was appointed surveyor to the Wiston estate (WSRO WISTON 5759), at which time he was stated to be living in Horsham; second, he worked on Wiston rectory, near Buncton and, third, he restored Buncton chapel. He appears again at Horsham as a surveyor in KD 1907 at 31 London Road and there are mentions of him as holder of the position at Wiston until at least 1919. Though he does not appear again in a trade directory, SAS membership lists show him as a private resident in the town until 1948.
Restored: Buncton (1906)
Several designs were produced around 1860 for J Powell and Sons by an artist known only as Moberley. They are very much in the early style of the company and it is likely from the paucity of detail that he was a regular employee rather than a freelancer.
Glass: Seaford, – St Leonard
H P Monkton
Henry Percival (Percy) Monckton (1857-1930) was an architect of London. He was a pupil of John Whichcord junior (1823-85) and like him worked mainly on commercial and industrial buildings including many in the classical style for the Pearl Assurance Co, to whom he was consulting architect. In 1906 he had an otherwise unknown partner named Gillespie. However, in addition to urban projects, he also worked in rural areas, primarily Sussex, where he designed a house, Horeham Hurst, at Horam in 1887 and himself had a house at Hellingly.
Obit: The Builder 139 (1930) p867
Designed: Horam (1890 and 1899)
Sir T Monnington
Sir Walter Thomas Monnington (1902-76), always known as Tom, grew up in Sussex and became a pupil of Henry Tonks (1862-1937) at the Slade School, though he later taught at the Royal College of Art, as well as the RA Schools. He spent from 1922-25 in Italy, where he was profoundly influenced by quattrocento painters, above all Piero della Francesca (c1415-92). His earlier work was in a similar idiom and he became a successful painter of portraits and landscapes, many in the neglected medium of tempera. In the 1930s he worked on major decorative schemes at the Palace of Westminster and the new Bank of England. Perhaps as a result of work on camouflage during World War II, his style underwent a profound change during what was clearly a most unsettled period of his life, marked by the death of his first wife. He evolved a geometric, abstract style, though his output remained sparse. He was, however, widely liked and this may have contributed to his election as President of the RA in 1966. In 1937 he moved to Groombridge, where he spent the rest of his life.
Lit: Fine Arts Society: Sir Thomas Monnington 1902-1976, 1997; DNB
W E Monro
William Ernest Monro (1867-1945) became the partner of W E Seth Smith in 1905, though he maintained a separate identity in directories, cross-referenced to the main practice of Seth-Smith and Monro, with an address at 14 Lincoln’s Inn Fields (KD/L). Although his main residence was in St John’s Wood, where he died, he was in 1911 living in Hove, though no work in Sussex in which he was involved personally is known. Well after his death his name remained associated with the practice, as in 1957, when the design for St John Meads was finalised. By that year the practice had become Seth Smith, Monro and A E Matthew (see this section above for the last) and its address had changed to Grays Inn.
Designed: (In name only) Eastbourne, – St John Meads (1955-57)
Raffaele Monti (also found as Monte) (1818-81) was born in the Italian speaking part of Switzerland, the son of a sculptor, but grew up in Milan where he was trained by his father. He worked in Vienna and Budapest before coming to England in 1846, where he settled permanently as a consequence of the abortive revolt of 1848 in Austria and Hungary. His work includes public sculptures, some at the Crystal Palace after it was transferred to Sydenham, and losses on such work led to severe financial problems which he was never fully to overcome. He dealt in sculpture imported from Italy and also produced busts, but few memorials. His speciality was veiled figures. Later in life, he also designed silver and ceramics.
John Montier senior (1775(?)-1837) and junior (1803/04-after 1873) were father and son, as well as both being architects and surveyors of Tunbridge Wells and working on the Eridge estate nearby. It is thus hard to differentiate between them, particularly as both successively owned property in Frant which is on the estate. John Montier senior may be the same as John Mountier (sic), who was baptised at Midhurst in 1775, the son of another John, who himself seems likely to be the John Montier, who was listed as a carpenter and joiner in Midhurst in 1793 (Universal British Directory). It is certain that Montier senior was settled in Tunbridge Wells by the time his son was born there, though the latter was to marry in Frant. The date of the rebuilding of the chancel of Brenchley church, Kent in 1814 by one or other Montier suggests it was the father, and quite apart from the date, parish records confirm that the rebuilding of Frant church was also the father’s work. In this case the plans are signed simply John Montier, but a watercolour elevation in an obviously different hand is specifically signed ‘John Montier junior’. This demonstrates that the father was at least as much an architect as the son and that the two were professionally involved with each other. Further uncertainty about the two Montiers follows the death of a John Montier at Frant in 1837 and shortly afterwards John Montier junior is listed in PB 1837 by virtue of ownership of a property there and again in 1842. That would suggest that the son had inherited the property, but Colvin prefers the date of 1844 for the father’s death, based on a death certificate in that name registered in Southwark. However, given the extensive links of the Montiers to Frant, the man who died there in 1837 can be more readily accepted as the father. Several of the cottages ornees found on the Eridge estate have been attributed to Montier (the senior judging by the dates) (EH). From the 1840s, the son’s life went through various phases in Tunbridge Wells, sometimes as an architect and surveyor. In 1839 he had become part of Douch and Montier, carpenters and builders, which is consistent with his entry in the 1841 census, when he was listed as a carpenter with a son aged 5, yet another John. This last may be the John Montier whose death in Kensington in 1875 aged 39 is on record, but who does not appear there in KD/L in any capacity. By 1851 both were at the George Hotel, Tunbridge Wells the father with a new wife and described as ‘Victualler – inn’. In 1851 he is shown as Town Surveyor and in 1855 and 1862 his address was in Mount Ephraim (KD). He appears later both in the Poll Book for 1868 (living in Tunbridge Wells at a different address) and in a professional capacity as a surveyor, working in Uckfield in 1860 (BN 6 p742) and designing a Volunteer drill shed at Tunbridge Wells in 1868 (B 26 p478). That is the latest mention of him as an architect and there is no likely entry for him in the 1871 census. However, he appears in the SAS members list until 1873, though it is in keeping with the complexities of his life that despite the unusual name no record of his death has come to light.
Designed: Frant (1819-22, by the father)
R de Montmorency
Rachel Marion de Montmorency (1891-1961) is always referred to in contemporary records formally as Mrs (later Lady) R M de Montmorency. She was the daughter of the Rev Charles C Tancock, successively headmaster of Rossall and Tonbridge schools, and trained in glass making under C Whall, whose assistant she was for a while. She was prevented from training further at the RA Schools by the outbreak of World War I. After the war ended she became assistant and later studio manager to another of Whall’s pupils, E Woore, first in Hammersmith and from 1925 in Putney. In 1931 she married Miles Fletcher de Montmorency (1893-1963), an artist who had previously helped her with some of her commissions and who inherited a baronetcy late in life. Her earliest glass dates from the 1920s and shows Woore’s influence, but most of her independent work dates from after 1945. She moved in later life to Winchester.
Glass: Eastbourne, – All Saints; – St Michael Ocklynge; – St Saviour; Jarvis Brook; Little Horsted
A L Moore C E Moore
Arthur Louis Moore (1849-1939) was a founder-member of Gibbs and Moore of Great Russell Street, glassmakers in 1871; Arthur Gibbs, his first partner, is a shadowy figure, whose first initial is also given as S and who is not heard of after 1878. He was probably not a member of the glassmaking family established by I A Gibbs senior, which despite the complexity of its business arrangements is fairly well documented. Moore was alone from 1878 at an address in Southampton Row until joined by his son Charles Eustace Moore (CEM) (1880-1956) in 1896, when the firm became A L Moore and Son. During this period at least A L Moore designed other fittings – there is a reredos of 1895 by him at Chatton, Northumberland. The company’s premises moved a number of times within a small area, first to Bedford Way, Russell Square and then from 1929 to Upper Bedford Place (KD/L). It is not known precisely when A L Moore retired but by 1934 C E Moore was signing glass in his name only (see All Saints, Luton, Bedfordshire) and by 1940, when the premises of the business were bombed, it carried only C E Moore’s name. It survived this setback and continued until C E Moore’s retirement in 1952.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St John, Preston (CEM), – St John Baptist, Palmeira Square, Hove, – St Luke, Queen’s Park; Burwash Weald; Crawley, – St Peter; Dallington; Ditchling; Eastbourne, – St Mary (CEM); Heathfield; Lancing, – St Michael; Netherfield; Partridge Green; Pevensey; Rotherfield; Salehurst; Sayers Common; Steyning; Uckfield, – St Saviour; Whatlington; Wisborough Green; Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene
L T Moore
Leslie Thomas Moore (1883-1957) was the son of a canon of Norwich and articled to Sir R W Edis; later he worked in the office of Sir John Simpson (1858-1933), who designed Roedean School and had many other Brighton connections. Moore started his own practice in 1909 designing mainly churches, though he was also responsible for other buildings such as hospitals. However, after the death of his brother-in-law, the son and partner of the eminent church-architect Temple Moore (not apparently otherwise a relation) (see this section below), the two survivors went into practice together and L T Moore took sole charge after Temple Moore’s death. Unpropitious economic and political factors limited his church work in particular, so that he designed mainly houses and hospitals, although he worked on the restoration of Peterborough cathedral for over 30 years. He was a member of the Art Workers Guild, with which he was more in sympathy than his father-in-law had been.
Lit: T Ellis: The Ecclesiastical Work of Leslie Moore in G K Brandwood: Temple Moore – an Architect of the Late Gothic Revival, Stamford, 1997; BAL Biog file
Altered: Bexhill, – St Barnabas (1935 and 1939); – St Mark, Little Common (1931) – as T Moore); Hastings, – Christ Church, St Leonards (1919-20)
C Rupert Moore (1904-82) was born in Doncaster and after local study attended the Royal College of Art, where he was a pupil of M Travers. He was also a painter and was particularly known for his paintings of aircraft. His earliest known glass is in the chapel of the former grammar school at Doncaster and dates from 1927, though not unveiled for over ten years. From about 1952 he designed glass extensively for J Powell and Sons (later Whitefriars) until the firm closed, after which he produced designs for Chapel Studios. Much of his glass was heraldic.
Obit: JSMGP 18/1 (1983-84) pp100-03
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Church Road; – St Anne Burlington Street (gone?); Chailey, – St Peter (attr); Coleman’s Hatch
Temple Lushington Moore (1856-1920) was born in Ireland and became a pupil of George G Scott junior. He completed several of Scott’s projects after his insanity developed, though he had started his own practice. He became one of the leading church architects in the simplified gothic of the late revival and designed houses in the old English or even classical styles. Despite differences of detail, he was generally content to continue in the idiom that had been started by G F Bodley and Scott junior, though some of his churches have unusual plans. Although living in London, much of his work is in the north and there is no parish church by him in Sussex, though in addition to the work listed below he designed fittings for the chapels of Lancing College and Hurstpierpoint School. The fittings that he designed were of almost every kind,and gave his High Church sympathies full expression.
Lit: G K Brandwood: Temple Moore – an Architect of the Late Gothic Revival, Stamford, 1997
Altered: Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common (1930 – in name only); Hastings, – Christ Church, London Road, St Leonards (1919 – attr)
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael, altar
Margery More produced a relief of St Francis in the 1960s for the chapel at Faygate in the parish of Colgate, where she worshipped. When that closed the relief was transferred to Colgate church. No other record of her has come to light.
John Morris (1716-92) was the son and grandson of Lewes masons and himself followed their trade, becoming also a surveyor. He was a dissenter and was mostly patronised by the Whig interest in the county, where he worked extensively. He was connected with several churches and houses, among the latter Glynde Place, though the work there was commissioned by a bishop. Others have generally been credited with the designs with which he was involved, but Morris certainly contributed to them as the man on the spot and at Laughton church there are grounds for suggesting he was responsible for the actual design. His father had his yard in the Cliffe, Lewes but around 1712 moved it to the other side of the river near Eastgate. This was inherited by the son and later passed to the Parsons family, of whom J L Parsons was active as an architect and contractor in the C19, and remained a mason’s yard until the 1970a.
Worked at: Glynde (1763-65); Laughton (1764-65)
Memorial: Eastbourne, – St Mary
Joseph Morris (1836-1913) was an architect of Reading and of Quaker origin. He was articled to John Berry Clacy (1810/11-1880), a prominent local architect, who though only listed in directories at 13 Prospect Street, Reading without an occupation between 1830 and 1847, describes himself as an architect in the 1861 census. Morris and Clacy were briefly partners in the mid-1850s and in 1855-57 they restored Finchampstead church in Berkshire. Morris became County Surveyor of Berkshire and his second partner from 1875-86 was S S Stallwood, followed in turn by his son Francis Edward Morris (1871-1908) and his daughter Violet Shewell (1878-1958), one of the earliest woman architects in Britain. Morris was a prolific designer in the Reading area, using the classical style for most of his secular buildings. Stallwood was a High Churchman, though their joint work included most types of building and the partnership probably ended because Morris joined the Agapemonite sect. Thereafter he designed few churches except one in east London for the Agapemonites themselves, and around 1905 moved to the intriguingly named Abode of Love at Spaxton, Somerset, which after a rather lurid beginning in the 1840s had become the seat of the highly respectable sect (it should be recalled that the sect derived its title from the Greek agape, which means spiritual as opposed to carnal love (or eros). Morris died at Spaxton and was buried there. He and his daughter designed several of the buildings of the community, which lasted until its closure about 1958, the year in which Violet, who was still living there, died.
Lit: H G Arnold and S M Gold: Morris of Reading: a Family of Architects 1836-1958, TAMS 33 (1989) pp45-96 and Supplement, TAMS 38 (1994) pp147-68; BAL Biog file
Restored: Horsted Keynes (1885)
Morris and Co Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co W Morris
Founded in 1861, the objective of its chief founder, William Morris (1834-96) was to produce high quality furnishings and fabrics, in conscious rejection of growing industrialisation. Much of the early success of the company was in the design and making of stained glass and until quite recently, theirs was the only C19 glass deemed worthy of serious attention. Their early glass was designed by Pre-Raphaelite artists, including D G Rossetti (DGR) and F Madox Brown (see this section above) (FMB), but soon Sir E Burne-Jones (BJ) became responsible. This led to a change of style towards the Italian High Renaissance which caused a break with some early clients such as G F Bodley. In its early years the firm had been badly organised and under-charged for its work, but a restructuring in 1875 led to a more business-like approach. The new organisation was under Morris’s direct control, though the time he could devote to the company became less as his other interests grew. Other designers were P P Marshall (see this section above) (PPM), C Faulkner and P Webb (PW). After Burne-Jones died in 1898 his designs continued to be used posthumously and John Henry Dearle (JHD) (1860-1932) and W H Knight produced new ones in a similar idiom until the firm closed in 1940, but they lacked both originality and the imaginative though unexpectedly light colouring of the company’s earlier work. Most of its other work was domestic in character, though they produced some fittings for churches, notably tiled reredoses, in which George G Scott junior was particularly interested. Morris himself trained first as an architect under G E Street, but soon became diverted by the decorative arts, of which his designs for textiles and wallpapers were especially influential. As well as founding what became Morris and Co, he was a poet and became involved in radical Socialist politics. Late in life he started the design and making of hand-produced books at his Kelmscott Press.
Lit: L Parry (ed): William Morris, 1996; A C Sewter: The Stained Glass of William Morris and his Circle, 1974-75
Glass: Billingshurst (probable); Brighton and Hove, – Annunciation (DGR and BJ); – St Michael (BJ, FMB, PW, PPM); Hastings, – St Mary Magdalene (BJ); Haywards Heath, – St Wilfrid (BJ and FMB); Lancing, – St Michael (JHD?); Madehurst (BJ – fragments); Portslade by Sea, – St Andrew (BJ, posthumous); Rotherfield (BJ and WM); Rottingdean (BJ); Rye (BJ); Tillington (BJ, posthumous); Wadhurst (BJ, posthumous); Worthing, – St Paul; – Holy Trinity
Fittings: Clapham, tiled reredos; Findon, tiled reredos; Patching, tiled reredos (possible)
W T Morris W Morris Studios
William Theodore Morris (1874-1944) and his studio had no link with Morris and Co (see immediately above), with which this firm has frequently been confused. This Morris was a Londoner and son of a builder’s merchant, who set up a glass manufactory in 1901, moving to Rochester Row, Westminster in 1905. He also supplied ironwork before establishing a stained glass studio and brass foundry (much in demand after World War I for memorials) and the firm supplied leaded lights and casements for houses. The firm’s earlier glass is in a variety of idioms, some revealing the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement, but much is in the conventional idiom of the time. This suggests that they did not then have a full-time designer. In the 1930s, beset with financial difficulties, the firm was sold, whilst its premises were bombed in World War II. It restarted in 1946 in Great Peter Street, near other ecclesiastical suppliers, with F W Cole as chief designer and remained there until glassmaking ended in 1958.
Lit: R Cooke: The Other William Morris, JSG 24 (2000) pp53-59
Glass: Amberley; Felpham; Hellingly; Heyshott; Horsted Keynes; Laughton; Lewes, – Southover; Linch; Loxwood; Newhaven, – Christ Church (formerly, now in St Thomas More RC church, Seaford), -St Michael; Worth
Roger Mortimer (1700-69) was an itinerant painter in East Sussex and beyond, who did many portraits. Waterhouse characterises his works for churches as ‘indifferent’ and few survive. His nephew, whom he may have assisted in the early stages of his training, was the better known John Hamilton Mortimer (1740-79).
Painted: Hastings, – St Clement, remnants of reredos and (?) benefactors board
William Moseley (1798-1880) was born in Northamptonshire and came from a nonconformist background. The circumstances of his training are not known, though he settled at a youmg age in London, where he was appointed Surveyor to the County of Middlesex from 1829 to c1854 and then District Surveyor of West Islington until his death. Among his partners was his younger brother, Andrew (1813-1906). William Moseley’s most prominent work in London was Clerkenwell prison (1845-47) and in his official capacity he designed schools and lunatic asylums as well. His non-official commissions were more distributed geographically and were largely churches in a basic gothic style with large lancets, dating from the 1830s and 1840s. Unsurprisingly, subsequent generations did not like them and all have been altered or rebuilt. Probably his last significant building was the service wing at Hotham hall, East Riding of Yorkshire, started around 1871, but Moseley had already done work in Middlesex in the 1840s for the owner who commissioned it.
Obit: The Builder 39 p171
Designed: Forest Row (1836); Hadlow Down (1836 – rebuilt); Holtye Common (1834-36 – dem); Horsham, – St Mark (1840 – dem); North Barcombe (1841 – unexecuted); Uckfield (1839-40 – extended)
Restored/altered: Brighton and Hove, – St Andrew, Church Road, Hove (1839); Warnham (1846-47)
A R Mowbray and Co
Founded in Oxford in 1858 by Alfred Richard Mowbray (1824-75) as religious booksellers and suppliers of ecclesiastical fittings and perquisites of all kinds (including glass), both the firm’s works and shop were there. A London branch, opened in 1873, was for many years in Margaret Street. Their products continued almost unchanged well into the C20, as a catalogue of their wares of 1926 shows and they supplied mainly churches of an Anglo-Catholic persuasion. The lists below can only be a small proportion of what they actually supplied, even within Sussex. The business of manufacturing ecclesiastical fittings was taken over by J Wippell and Co in 1969, but the shop in London survived for another 25 years until it was taken over by the Waterstone chain. Even then, its name survived for a while as a separate religious department within Hatchard’s bookshop in Piccadilly, also part of Waterstones. In later years Mowbray’s did not design the goods they sold, but commissioned others, though few can be credited to a name. Among their known designers of glass was A L Ward.
Lit: A R Mowbray and Co: Church Arts and Crafts, 1926 (NAL)
Fittings: Worthing, – St John, West Worthing, statues
Glass: High Hurstwood
A W M Mowbray
Alfred William Mardon Mowbray (1849-1915) was born in Bridgewater, Somerset, the son of A R Mowbray (see immediately above). In 1871 he was assisting in his father’s business in Oxford, but his application for FRIBA shows he had already trained as an architect, as he went into practice in 1872. His obituary in BN claims he was a pupil of G E Street, then active in the diocese of Oxford, and worked on 38 churches there, but according to his FRIBA application he was a pupil and assistant of Charles Buckeridge of Oxford (1833-73) and then assistant to J Clarke. He did, however, for certain design and restore at least some churches in the Oxford and Buckinghamshire areas, mostly from the late 1880s. In 1877 (KD) he was living at Burton Villa, Eastbourne, where he worked for the Duke of Devonshire, but in 1891 he was back in Oxford. He resigned from the RIBA in 1893 for unstated reasons.
Obit: Building News 108 p266
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Philip (1885 – not built or replaced)
Munich Royal Bavarian Manufactory
The Royal Manufactory in Munich was established by King Ludwig I of Bavaria (reigned 1825-48) and was widely respected above all in the 1840s for the technical quality of its glass. Its designs came from some of the best known German painters of the period and were thus highly pictorial. Though greatly admired in Germany, notably those installed in Cologne cathedral after construction resumed, by the 1850s its lack of mediaevalism and dark, intense colours were seen in Britain as increasingly antiquated. Some of the company’s glass is to be found in in this country, but though it sought to adapt its style, as the only example of its work in Sussex at Edburton shows, it played only a small part in Britain in later years. It had an influential part in setting up a tradition of glass-making in Bavaria, represented in Britain primarlly by the firm of Mayer and Co (see this section above).
E J Munt
Edwin James Munt (1850-1937) won RIBA prizes for drawing in 1870 and 1874 as a student (Proc RIBA), when he was at 2 John Street, Adelphi, the address of G M Hills, which suggests Munt was a pupil or assistant. In 1879 he assisted W Bassett-Smith with the restoration of Brailes church, Warwickshire (B 37 p871) but may have had a brief period on his own since he was wholly responsible for rebuilding a church in Looe, Cornwall in 1882-83. He was, however, back with Bassett-Smith by the latter year as his partner and was again recorded as such in 1885, though possibly not for long after that. He may be presumed to be the architect of the name, whose address in 1881 was 106 Ramsden Road, Clapham and had moved to Streatham in 1901, where he was still living in 1911. He designed at least one church in Berkshire (demolished) in 1914, but otherwise his later life before his death in a nursing home at Redhill, Surrey remains undocumented. The addition of the occupation of draughtsman to that of architect in the 1911 census may provide a clue as to a second source of income.
Rebuilt: Lewes, All Saints (1883 – with W Bassett-Smith)
C H Murray
Colin Hay Murray (1885-1966) was both son and pupil of W H Murray (see this section below) after which from 1903-05 he was in his office. He then moved to London to assist his uncle, Robert Cunninghame Murray (1851-1926), who had himself been a pupil of A W Jeffery and W Skiller (RIBA/F Nomination) in Hastings, where he was living with his family in 1861. The nephew attended the RA Schools before employment from 1905-09 in the Architect’s Department of the London County Council. In 1911 he was living in Eastbourne. no doubt to be with his father; he probably helped with the design of St Andrew, Eastbourne, but in 1913-14 he was back in London as chief assistant to Edward Herbert Bourchier (1856-1938), who had later Eastbourne connections through S J Tatchell. After war service, Murray took over the practice of his recently deceased father and it is given as W H Murray and Son in 1920 (KD/Eastbourne). He soon merged this with his uncle’s practice to form Murray, Delves and Murray of Eastbourne and 10 King’s Bench Walk, Inner Temple (later Murray, Delves, Murray and Atkins), which still existed in 1964, when R W Pite had been added to the name of the practice. Stanley William Worth Delves (1869-1959) was a pupil and later assistant of H H Cronk (see under E E Cronk) of Tunbridge Wells, where he died. C H Murray himself was still to be found in practice at Eastbourne in 1930 (KD).
Lit: BAL Biog file
(My thanks are due to Nick Antram, who sorted out many ramifications of the Murray family tree for me)
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Andrew (1911 – attr)
Repaired: Eastbourne, – All Souls (1963 – with Pite)
Fitting: Eastbourne, – St Saviour, war memorial (1920-21)
G and W A Murray
Found only in three reports in The Builder in 1885-86, this must be an error for W H and J D Murray (see this section below), stated elsewhere to have done identical work at the non-existent church of Emmanuel, Eastbourne in the same year.
Altered: Hastings, – Emmanuel (1886)
H G Murray
Henry Gibbons Murray (1852-1929) came from humble origins, for his father was a coachman and in 1871 he was working as a clerk. Ten years later he had somehow become a glass painter and he married two teachers in succession, the second of whom in 1901 was head of St Stephen’s School, Rochester Row. His first known work in glass consisted of several windows, the earliest dated 1881 in Sandy, Bedfordshire, which he signed but which were made by the firm of Stephen Belham and Co of 155 Buckingham Palace Road, London. Stephen Belham (1827-91) was primarily a builder and contractor and lived at Wimbledon, but though he does not appear in any census, his will is known. However, the modest size of his estate (£967) does not suggest he had any great material success. His name applied to glass-making is first found in 1878 (KD/L) (though a window at Sunningwell, Berkshire bears the date 1877). Whilst hardly prominent among glassmakers of the period, architects of the stature of John Pollard Seddon (1827-1906) were closely linked with the company, so it seems to have been at least of some artistic standing On occasion it produced glass for Seddon to a design by Murray, e g at Hoarwithy, Herefordshire in 1890. The name of Belham appears in the records less frequently after 1899 (ibid) and the latest recorded date for glass produced by them (not in Sussex) is 1902. It would seem that Murray, who is first found at the Buckingham Palace Road address in 1900,had acquired and renamed the business, though its customers changed little initially,for in 1904 he produced more glass for Hoarwithy, this time designed by Seddon. Within a couple of years Murray had moved to the Britannia Studio, Caroline Street, SW (KD 1902), and though his final address was given as 11A Caroline Street, he remained in business in the same area of London until 1921. He appears to be quite separate from the architects of Eastbourne and Hastings of the same name (see this section above and below).
My thanks to Mike Peckett, who provided much of the impetus to find out more about Henry Murray
Glass: Eastbourne, – St Philip (formerly)
W H and J D Murray
William Hay Murray (WHM) (1852-1919) and John Dunbar Murray (JDM) (1847-1919) were brothers, the sons of a schoolmaster of Scottish birth. Both were born at Bromley by Bow and had moved with their parents to Hastings before 1861. The older brother was in practice there by 1874 and as late as 1881 was living with his mother, whilst a third brother, Robert Cunninhame Murray (1851-1926) was also an architect, though in practice separately. In 1874 (KD) J D Murray’s professional address was at 3 Queens Road, Hastings and in 1883 at no 2 (BA 19 (2 Feb 1883) p i). By 1886 he and W H Murray had become partners at Robertson Road (or Street) in the town and there is a reference to the partnership as late as 1900 (BN 79 p537). However, most references after 1894 suggest the practice was in Eastbourne, though there is one under Hastings in KD 1899. In 1891 J D Murray was living in comfort in Ore and in 1901 was said to be retired, whilst in the latter year W H Murray was resident in Bexhill. The datings are rather problematic since as early as 1897 W H Murray had entered into a partnership at Eastbourne with H Spurrell, with whom he had worked in 1882. This ended in 1903 (BN 85 p722), though once again the chronology is confused since there is an isolated reference as late as 1918 (KD). W H Murray was joined in 1911 for a few years by his son, C H Murray (see this section above), who probably helped with St. Andrew, Eastbourne and took over the practice after W H Murray’s death.
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Andrew (1911 – W H M with Colin Hay Murray?); – St Anne (1882, (attr) as ‘Murray’, with H Spurrell); – St Mary, Hampden Park (1908 – WHM only, bombed 1940); Hastings, – St Saviour, St Leonards (1896-97 – probably unbuilt – both?); Horam (1914 – new church, unbuilt – WHM)
Altered/extended: Eastbourne, – St Anne (1898 – attr, dem); – St Saviour (1903 – ‘Mr Murray of Eastbourne’ – probably WHM); Hastings, – Emmanuel (1886 (as Eastbourne) and 1893 – both)
K C Murrin
Kenneth C Murrin does not appear in the records of the BAL, but an architect of the name worked on the interior of Holy Trinity, Worthing in 1978. Kenneth George Murrin (1919-89), architect, who is given in directories in Worthing from 1968 to 1984 and also had an office in Grand Parade, Brighton for part of that time,may be presumed to be the same.
Altered: Worthing, – Holy Trinity (1978)