Benjamin Ingelow (1835-1925) was born in Ipswich, the son of a banker. In 1852 he became a pupil of A S Newman, moving to the office of W Slater in 1858, where he became chief assistant in the practice of Slater and arc that emerged around this time. From 1862 he oversaw the building of the cathedral in Honolulu, designed by the practice. After Slater’s death in 1872 he became Carpenter’s partner, though he also worked on his own account and continued to do so after Carpenter in turn died.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Leonard, Aldrington (1876-78 – as Carpenter and I, incorporating old fragments); Highbrook (1884 – as Carpenter and I)
Restored: Ardingly (1887 – as Carpenter and I); Lewes, – All Saints (1872); – Southover (1883-84 – as Carpenter and I); New Shoreham (1895-96)
Fitting: New Shoreham, pulpit
H C Ingram
Herbert Clavell Ingram (1877-1942) was the son of the rector of St Margaret Lothbury in the City and became a pupil and then assistant in succession of both G F Bodley and his erstwhile partner Thomas Garner. Curiously, according to his entry in WWA 1914 he established his own practice in 1901 which was well before he ceased to work for Bodley and Garner. His office was 9 Ironmonger Lane, City, close to his father’s rectory, where he was living in that year – he designed an extension for his father’s church which was built in 1908-10 and still survives. He served in the Army during World War I, though remaining listed in KD/L as an architect at the same address until 1920. By 1926 he was living at Highwood near Chelmsford, Essex, where he died. Apart from churches he worked mostly on country houses.
Restored: Brighton and Hove, – St Michael (nd – possibly the organ gallery, thought to be of 1912)
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Paul, rood figures.
G C V Inkpen
See G C Vernon-Inkpen
Walter Inskipp (1795-1855), the surveyor who produced a design for a new south aisle at Sedlescombe church in 1836, is listed as a surveyor in Hastings in 1832 and 1840 (PD) and was still resident in the town at 3 White Rock Place in the year of his death (KD) where he is also listed in 1841 and 1851. He had a brother called James, like him born in Battle (in 1790), who is almost certainly the same James Inskipp as the one described as a surveyor of buildings at Battle in 1840 (PD). He may in turn be the artist of the name, of whose early life nothing is known and who took to painting after retirement, who was likewise born in Battle in 1790 and died at Godalming, Surrey in 1868 (see DNB) Also probably connected is Frederick Charles Inskipp (1806/07-81) of Barrack Ground, Hastings, who was also born in Battle and is listed as a surveyor in 1840 (PD), though in 1851 (KD) he had become a registrar of births and deaths and in 1874 had been advanced to the position of Clerk to the Guardians of the Hastings Union. (i e the workhouse) (KD).
Extended: Sedlescombe (1836 – possibly never carried out)
W Inwood and H W Inwood
William Inwood (1771/72-1843) and Henry William Inwood (1794-1843) were father and son, who worked closely together, especially in North London, where they lived. The father trained as a surveyor, but designed a number of buildings in later life. His son was trained in his father’s office and was initially active mainly as a surveyor, though he appears to have taken the lead in designing the tower at East Grinstead, despite his extreme youth. Father and son won the competition for the new St Pancras church in London and Henry visited Athens to study its architecture at first hand. This was principally because the new church was Grecian in style but he also wrote about the architecture of Athens after his return. A number of other churches followed, increasingly in the gothic style, but the son’s attempts at gothic were generally unhappy, whilst the father fell upon hard times. In 1843 Henry decided to go to Spain, but perished in a shipwreck on the way; by a strange co-incidence, his father had died three days before.
Lit: DNB (both)
Completed: East Grinstead (1811-13)
J C L Iredel J C L Iredell
John Charles L Iredel or Iredell (1916-90) generally used the first spelling of his name professionally, but his birth and death were registered with two Ls. He lived at a succession of addresses in Brighton and Hove from at least 1962 and he was to die in Hove. The faculties for the work he did at Buxted give his address as 8 Palmeira Square, Hove and as this overlaps with his presence in directories at what was probably his private address at 65 Langdale Road, Hove, it was presumably his office. He was one of the Diocesan Panel of Architects.
Designed: Worthing, – Emmanuel (1975-76 – dem)
Restored: Buxted, – St Margaret (1969-70)
Christopher Ironside (1913-92) trained initially as a painter and shared exhibitions with his brother Robin (1912-65), also a painter, whose style was close to Surrealism. Christopher, after teaching at a school in Kensington run by his aunt, taught at the Royal College of Art. He was also a sculptor and designer, with a particular interest in coins and medals. His best known work was the reverses of the first British decimal coinage, but he also made designs for the coins of several other states. He undertook a number of commissions for memorials in the form of brasses, though these were etched rather than engraved, and also worked on stage sets.
Obit: The Times 15 July 1992; NAL Information file
Memorial: Arundel (Fitzalan Chapel), brass
Isaac Irwin (1915-2007) studied in his native city of Glasgow and later moved to Southampton, the area in which most of his work is to be found. Known as a glass engraver, he also designed stained glass.
Glass: Horsham, – Holy Trinity
George Washington Henry Jack (1855-1931) was of Scots parentage, though born in the USA as his first names suggest. He was back in England by 1881, when he described himself as an architect, though it is not known where he trained. In 1882 he became assistant to P Webb, to whose practice he succeeded in 1900. Like Webb, his architectural commissions were mostly domestic. He was also active in the SPAB and either through this or because of his connection with Webb he was introduced to W Morris and started to design furniture for Morris and Co. Thereafter, he was increasingly active in this area and as a woodcarver, a craft which he taught at the Royal College of Art and about which he also wrote. Unsurprisingly with such a background, he became an enthusiastic follower of the Arts and Crafts movement, joining the Art Workers Guild and also associating with like-minded architects such as Charles Canning Winmill (1865-1945). As well as furniture, Jack designed and made stained glass.
Lit: P Cormack: George Jack, Architect and Designer-Craftsman, Waltham Forest, 2006
Carving: Eastbourne, – St Saviour
F H Jackson
Frederick Hamilton Jackson (1848-1923) was a London painter and writer, who studied at the Slade School, the RA Schools and under Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919). Later, in 1880 he founded the Chiswick School of Art and developed a particular interest in work for churches. As a member of the Art Workers Guild, he designed murals, as well as writing illustrated travel books. He also designed a small amount of stained glass, including in Sussex part of one window at Uckfield for J Powell and Sons.
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew, mosaics
J E Jackson
John Edwin Jackson (1912-89) was articled to his father, who was also an architect, in Ashford, Kent. In 1951 they formed a partnership with an office in Folkestone as well. His father died in 1953 and by 1961 he was living and working in the Worthing area. In 1964-65 he had a local address, 69 Wallace Avenue, Worthing, when he worked with N F C Cachemaille-Day on the completion of St John, West Worthing. He did further work there alone in the following year.
Completed: Worthing, – St John, West Worthing (1964-65 (with Cachemaille-Day) and 1966)
Repaired: Linch (1951-53)
Philip Henry Christopher Jackson (b1944) was born in Inverness, but attended Farnham School of Art, where he trained as a sculptor. He has produced numerous public statues, including an equestrian one of the Queen (2002) in Windsor Great Park and a large one of Bobby Moore outside the new Wembley stadium (2007). Other works are religious in nature, of which two of the most prominent are a Christ in Judgement and a St Richard in Chichester cathedral and he has also produced decorative sculpture , e g at Canary Wharf in London. He now lives at Midhurst.
Sir T G Jackson
Sir Thomas Graham Jackson, Bart (1835-1924) was educated at Brighton College and Oxford. He was articled to Sir George G Scott, whom he assisted on the reconstruction of Chichester cathedral tower and spire before starting on his own in 1863. He was later critical of Scott, particularly in his Modern Gothic Architecture, one of the many books he wrote. He was also a non-resident fellow of Wadham College, Oxford from 1864-80 and a member of the Art Workers Guild, of which he was master in 1896. J C Powell of J Powell and Sons was a friend and Jackson frequently recommended the firm’s glass, as well as designing over 30 windows for the company himself, which show the strong influence of H E Wooldridge, one of the firm’s leading designers. In the view of D Hadley these ‘are generally saved from dullness only by an attractive use of colour’. Jackson also designed glass tableware for the firm. His friendship with the Rev Henry Nicholls of Madehurst led to the restoration of the church and then to other commissions in the vicinity. Most of his extensive work at Oxford,was in the Renaissance (or ‘Anglo-Jackson’) style and the quantity of it led to the further facetious suggestion that the city should be renamed ‘Jacksonville’. Despite his heavy workload, he restored churches throughout his life. Unusually, he received a baronetcy in 1913, in recognition of his work on replacing the foundations of the nave of Winchester cathedral.
Lit: Sir T G Jackson: Recollections, edited and revised 2003
Advised: Brighton and Hove, – St Augustine (1894-1913 – consultant); Rye (1908)
Restored: Binsted (1866-68); Burpham (1868-69); Madehurst (1863-64); Playden (1898); Slindon (1866-67)
Glass: Binsted; Slindon
Jessie Mary Jacob (1890-1933) had a studio at Strand Green in North London and belonged to the Society of Master Glass Painters. Little else is known of her her, except that she spent all her life in north east London, for she was born in Edmonton, Middlesex, the daughter of a chemist. Much of her glass is symbolist in style, as was popular in the early C20.
Glass: Icklesham; Lewes, – St Anne; – St John the Baptist, Southover
Isaac James (who is found between 1600-24/25 and whose real name was Harrer), was of Dutch ancestry. Unusually, he lived and worked in Westminster, not Southwark where most foreign masons were to be found. He is described as a ‘tomb-maker’ and his work is less stiff than that of the previous generation of sculptors, though his designs varied little. Among his pupils was N Stone the Elder.
Memorial: Friston (attr)
Rachel James collaborated with R Andrews whilst working at Carden and Godfrey (see under W E Godfrey), on the reconstruction of the vault at New Shoreham, starting in 2003. She qualified in 1990 and now heads her own practice in London, with a particular interest in conservation.
Restored: New Shoreham (2003-06)
W James and Co
William James and Co were an established glassworks in Camden Town by 1870, though listed also in KD/L from that date under stained glass artists. In later years the company is to be found in other parts of north London, including 72 Willis Road, Kentish Town, when it is described as an ornamental glass works. Later they were situated in Hythe Road there and had moved to Willesden by 1920, where they were to be found until 1940. Like other such companies in London, they probably bought in designs to fulfil orders for stained glass.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – Chapel Royal
A W Jeffery
Albert Wilson Jeffery (1840-1915) was born in Northampton, the son of a solicitor, but by the age of 10 was at a boarding school at Cheriton, Kent. The proximity probably explains why in 1861 he was an articled clerk to Martin Bulmer (1809-79) of Strood, Kent and living in his household. Exactly why he chose to settle in Hastings is not known, but by 1871 he was in practice there. His partners were W Skiller and initially also G Voysey. As Jeffery and Skiller the firm designed a number of public buildings over the south of England. Both Jeffery’s sons were architects and the practice by 1905 (KD) was known as A W Jeffery and Son. One son was Francis Wilson Jeffery (1881-1965 – known as Frank) who seems to have been mainly a quantity surveyor; the other son, Herbert (see immediately below) was his father’s assistant and took over the practice. This had links with J D and W H Murray of Eastbourne and Hastings.
Designed: Hastings, – Emmanuel (1873-74)
Restored/extended: Guestling (1886 and 1890 (attr)); Hastings, – Christ Church, Blacklands (1886-90); – St Clement, Halton (1888 – probably, dem)
H M Jeffery
Herbert Murray Jeffery (1880-1954) in 1938-39 repaired St Mary-in-the-Castle, Hastings. He was the son of A W Jeffery (see immediately above) and in 1901 was his assistant. He afterwards took over the practice. Between at least 1911 and 1930 he was surveyor to Rye Rural District Council (KD), but his later career also included more conventional architectural work. In 1938 his office was 51 Havelock Road, Hastings (ibid) and he had a partner named N A E Wyatt, who is not more fully known. His middle name of Murray probably recalls at least one of J D and W H Murray, two local architects of that name with whom his father had close professional dealings.
Repaired: Hastings, – St Mary-in-the-Castle (1938-39)
John J Jennings (1848-1919) called himself in 1881 a ‘Draughtsman for painted glass’, though his employer at this time is unknown. He is said to have trained at Lambeth Art School and was born in Southwark, but information about him is scarce, despite the long time that the company he later established was active. The earliest reference to this is in 1887 when it was at 118 Clapham Road, Fulham and in 1908 it was at 96 Clapham Road (Post Office London County Suburbs), where the latest reference is in 1917 (KD/L). Among the outside designers Jennings employed was E A F Prynne.
John Joad was the handyman on the Hammerwood estate when in the 1920s he made a metalwork lectern for the parish church at the local forge. He is said to have been self-taught and to have designed other fittings in southern England, though none has yet been identified.
My thanks to Derrick Joad for this information about his grandfather.
Fitting: Hammerwood, lectern
Mentions of Ralph Joanes in Lewes itself are found only;between 1840 and 1844, but his slightly earlier link with Stanmer nearby, in which the Chíchester architect J Butler was also involved, suggests he already had some connections there. In 1841 there is an architect and surveyor of the name (born 1800/01) at Lansdowne Terrace, Chichester who is almost certainly the same. A connection with the builder and surveyor of the same name who is listed at Horsham in 1811 (London and Country Directory) seems plausible as well, though the date means he cannot be the same. Such a connection would confirm that he was rather peripatetic, since by the end of 1841 he was definitely living in Lewes, where whilst not listed in any directory, his name is in LBPB for that year only, described as an architect. There is nothing certain after this except possibly a mention of a Ralph Joanes, said to be of Tunbridge Wells and a member of the Sussex Archaeological Society whose death was reported in 1850; in view of the unusual spelling,he may well be the same. Further corroboration for his death at or before this date (for which there does not seem to be an official record) is provided by a reference in the 1851 census to his wife Hester (given as such in the 1841 census), who is recorded as living in Brighton as a widow.
Designed: Stanmer (1838 – attr and possibly clerk of works)
Restored: Lewes, – St Anne (1844)
Richard Joanes appears to have been mainly a builder at Horsham and there are references to him there between c1760 and 1801; Ralph Jones, recorded at Horsham in 1811 (for a mention see the entry immediately above) is likely to be connected. However, despite a recorded career of around 40 years, only one memorial by Richard Joanes is recorded.
Sir W Goscombe John
Sir William Goscombe John (1860-1952) was born in Cardiff, the son of Thomas John (1834-93), a stonecarver who worked on Cardiff castle for W Burges. The son received his first training there before going in 1882 to London, where he was employed by T Nicholls and attended the RA Schools; he also studied under the French sculptor, Jules Dalou (1838-1902) who was then teaching in London. He showed early talent and spent several years in travel throughout western Europe, thanks to several benefactors, before setting up his own studio in London in 1892. For the rest of his life he produced a steady stream of academic and public statues, the latter including numerous war memorials for both the Boer War and World War I, together with other ones. His style was conservative but technically highly accomplished and particularly in his earlier years he was close to the New Sculpture Movement. He became ARA and in 1909 was elected a full RA, two years before he was knighted.
Memorial: West Dean (W)
Garret Johnson (1541-1611) was born in the Netherlands, but had come to England by 1567 when he was settled in Southwark. He was one of the many Dutch and other foreign artisans, mostly refugees, who settled in Southwark as they were forbidden to work in the City. He married an English wife and became a citizen, so his sons were eligible to join a guild. Records of his large workshop are by far the fullest in the late Elizabethan period and it supplied monuments over much of the country. As his work at West Firle shows, Johnson worked in both stone and brass. The business was continued after his death by his sons with little change. His first name, found also as ‘Gerard’ or ‘Geraert’, was almost certainly originally ‘Gerrit’ and his last name was originally Janssen.
Brasses: Clapham (attr); Cuckfield, brasses (attr); Framfield (attr); West Firle
Monuments: Easebourne (attr); West Firle
M W Johnson
Matthew Warton Johnson (1800-1881) was born in Stepney and became a prolific sculptor, whose work is widely spread in England and beyond. He continued work until the end of his life – indeed his latest work bears the posthumous date of 1882, 62 years after the first one recorded. He produced both monuments and garden sculpture. He is to be found at various addresses in London, settling finally in Southampton Street, Fitzroy Square.
Memorials: Brede; Cuckfield
R J Johnson
Robert James Johnson (1832-92) was born in the north east and articled to a local architect, John Middleton of Darlington (1820-85), before he moved to London, where he was an assistant to Sir George G Scott from 1849 to 1858. He then returned briefly to North Shields, but in c1861 spent further time in London, before returning to the Newcastle area a second time, where he and his partner Thomas Austin (1822-67 – a member of the Austin family of Lancaster who were closely involved in the distinguished practice of Paley and Austin) – purchased in 1865 the former practice of the eminent Newcastle architect, John Dobson (1787-1865) and practised extensively, mostly within the city. Austin died within two years and Johnson, with various partners, continued the practice, working on churches quite widely in the north, until obliged by a stroke to retire. He also had an address in Pimlico, London and died in Tunbridge Wells. He was Diocesan Surveyor for Durham and later Newcastle Dioceses and his churches were mostly in the Perp style, though he used the Queen Anne style for many domestic buildings.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Woolbeding (1890?)
P M Johnston
Philip Mainwaring Johnston (1865-1936) was an architect who wrote many articles about Sussex churches, though his promised book on the subject was never published, and a pillar of the Sussex Archaeological Society. A pupil of John Belcher (1841-1913) and like him a member of the Catholic Apostolic or Irvingite Church, he started in practice in 1881 and worked on churches and houses all over the Home Counties. Though he did not preserve everything he found, his approach was more cautious than that of earlier restorers and he had a particular interest in wall-paintings, as exemplified by his study of those at Hardham. He was architect to Chichester Cathedral.
Obit: The Times 19 Dec 1936
Restored: Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, Preston (1906); Chithurst (1911); Ford (1899-1900); Hardham (c1900); Linchmere (1906 and 1936); Lindfield (1931); Lyminster (1902 and 1933); North Stoke (1910); Poling (1917); Rogate (nd); Rottingdean (1917); Stoughton (1935 – possibly report only); Terwick (1910); Tortington (1904); Trotton (1903-04); Westbourne (1932-33); Yapton (1902)
Fittings etc: Clayton, lychgate; Hastings, – St Mary Magdalene, sedilia and piscina; Hellingly, screen; Selsey, – St Peter, reredos; Walberton, lychgate
Jude Jones (1844-1914) was born at Stanmer, where his father was a carpenter on the estate, as his son was to be after him. After working in Brighton, Jude Jones was back on the estate in 1881, living in an estate lodge. He rose to be foreman building (1891) and carpenter foreman (1901). His signature as foreman has been found in connection with repairs to Stanmer House in 1897. His son Francis Jude Jones (1873-1937) was also a carpenter and joiner who worked on the doors of Stanmer church.
My thanks to David Jones who clarified a number of points about Jude and others of his forefathers
Keith Jones designed the altar and canopy for St Michael and All Angels, Willingdon Road, Eastbourne, installed in 2005, but it has so far not been possible to identify him fully. He may be connected with the architectural practice of Keith Jones Associates, which has offices in Steyning and Brighton.
Fittings: Eastbourne, – St Michael and All Angels, Willingdon Road, altar and canopy
Jones and Willis
The firm was founded in Birmingham in the C18, primarily as a supplier of cloth for ecclesiastical purposes. In 1844 the Willis family re-founded it as a manufacturer and supplier of church fittings, initially known as Newton, Jones and Willis. In 1851 the firm was still only to be found in Birmingham, but at its peak later in the century it had a further workshop in London, attached to showrooms, as well as a branch in Liverpool. Pews and seats, metalwork, sculpture and stained glass were added to the company’s products and in 1899 they described themselves as ‘Church Furnishers to Her Most Gracious Majesty’. Their latest known glass (not in Sussex) is dated c1937, though it showed little advance in style and much of it could be 50 years older; the company nevertheless remained active into the 1940s. The regular catalogues from which most sales were made began to appear in 1846 and lasted until about 1931. In addition, the company advertised widely, including in the Chichester Diocesan Kalendar. Their glass was made at the London showrooms, which were in Great Russell Street (KD/L) under the management of Walter Willis (1849-1928), who was born outside Birmingham but settled permanently in London. Most designers were anonymous, though F E Howard did some work in the final phase.
Lit: Profile of the company, Arch J 3 p234 and 4 p188
Fittings: Appledram, font-cover; Bexhill – St Stephen, rails, lectern and font; Rottingdean, lectern; Worthing, – Christ Church, pulpit
Glass: Appledram (formerly); Brighton and Hove, – St Barnabas; – St Michael; Burwash Weald; Chichester, – St Pancras; Eastbourne, – Christ Church; East Lavant; East Wittering, – Assumption; Hellingly; Holtye Common; Horsham, – Holy Trinity; Horsted Keynes; Kingston Buci; Rudgwick; Hastings, – St Peter, Bohemia Road; Rusper; Steyning; Wilmington
J Jones-Warner Associates
Jane Jones-Warner has led her own practice, which is based in Chichester for 25 years. She specialises in work on historic buildings and the practice has done much work on churches in Surrey, Sussex and Hampshire.
Repaired/extended: Arundel (c2010); Balcombe; Kirdford; Linchmere; Thakeham (2018); Worthing, – Christ Church (2014)
Karin Margareta Jonzen (1914-98) was born in London of Swedish parents. She showed an early talent for drawing and was sent to the Slade School, but took up sculpture. Together with her first husband, Basil Jonzen (1913-67), she ran two galleries in succession, both initially with some success, but after her marriage ended she found that her figurative work was no longer widely accepted. Her conscious rejection of modernism was out of keeping with the times, though she continued to produce portrait busts. However in her later years her art was more favourably received again and there are several examples in open places in the City of London and in churches.
Obit: The Independent, 2 February 1998
Statues: Harting; Lewes, – St Anne
After an initial training in textile art at Winchester College of Art, Nicola Kantorowicz studied stained glass at the Central School of Art. She worked as an assistant to L Lee, before establishing her own studio at Sonning, Berkshire in 1988. Her work is almost all non-figurative.
Glass: Boxgrove, Tangmere
C J Kay
See under C R B Godman
Joseph Kay (1775-1847) specialised in new developments and streets, mainly in London, where he laid out parts of Islington and Camden Town. After pupillage with Samuel Pepys Cockerell (1753-1827), he travelled on the continent, partly with R Smirke, before going into practice. His designs for new public buildings met with limited success (Smirke ended up designing the new General Post Office in London, although Kay won the competition). He did, however, succeed to the position of Surveyor to Greenwich Hospital and also worked on housing nearby. In 1839 (Pigot’s Directory) his address was 6 Gower Street, London.
Designed: Hastings, – St Mary-in-the-Castle (new – 1825-28)
Henry Keene (1726-76) was a prolific and well connected architect who may have been a pupil of James Horne (d1756), whom he succeeded as Surveyor to the Fabric of Westminster Abbey. He designed country houses and worked on several Oxford colleges. During the 1760s he also worked in Ireland, though details of this period of his life are few. Keene was proficient in the classical style, but was also one of the first architects to use the revived gothic style or more precisely ‘Gothick’, which he used for both churches and secular buildings and which he had had good opportunity to study at both the Abbey and Oxford.
Altered: Westbourne (1770 – altered)
Charles Samuel Kelsey (1820-88) was born in Fulham and worked as a carver on public buildings in London and Liverpool. He trained at the RA, where he frequently exhibited between 1840 and 1877. In 1881, calling himself simply an artist, he was living in St Pancras; previously he had lived at various addresses in Lambeth and Chelsea.
C E Kempe
Charles Eamer Kempe (1834-1907) came from Ovingdean and later lived at Old Place, Lindfield, though his studio was in London. Despite the difference in spelling (he himself added the final -e), he belonged to the Kemp family best known for its association with Kemp Town, Brighton, so his background was prosperous and in later life he was able to sustain a business that can never have been very profitable. As a boy, he was a pupil of the vicar of Henfield and later went to Rugby and then studied at Oxford. Already deeply religious with Tractarian leanings, he aspired to the ministry, but concluded that this could not be reconciled with a severe speech impediment. Thereafter, as an alternative that would still allow close association with the Church, he joined the office of G F Bodley, already an eminent church architect. Though the extent of Kempe’s training was limited, he worked as architect throughout his career, as well as designing decorative schemes and fittings for churches. It was under Bodley’s tutelage that he took up decorative painting, though most such work dates from early in his career. He rapidly became a prolific artist in stained glass, having studied further with Clayton and Bell, for whom he produced his earliest designs, before turning to T Baillie and Co and then establishing his own business in 1866. He did not immediately start making his own glass and he was still feeling his way towards a style with which he was satisfied. During this period much of his glass was drawn by the pre-Raphaelite artist Arthur Hughes (1832-1915) and Kempe also undertook the restoration of mediaeval glass. By the 1880s he had evolved the dark colours and richly textured detail that characterised his mature work, which took as its main inspiration late mediaeval glass in both England and on the continent, especially Germany. Characteristic is the elaborate surface decoration, e g jewels and the feathers on angels’ wings. His best work glows with rich, subdued light, but some is formulaic and sentimental, the detail fussy and the colouring muddy. Once he had attained a style that satisfied him, it changed little for the rest of his life, though the size of his business alone meant he had to leave the detailed design to other talented members of his workshop such as A E Tombleson, H W Bryans and and E Heasman; both the last in addition undertook work on their own account that can be hard to distinguish. Others like John William Lisle (1870-1927) played an equally important part on the practical side and it is likely that they had a hand in the design of some of the company’s glass, even in Kempe’s lifetime. In Kempe’s later years he took his cousin W Tower, chiefly an architect, into partnership and after his death Tower continued the business as Kempe and Co (see immediately below). The ledgers of the company survive from 1893 until Kempe and Co closed in 1934 and form the basis of P N H Collins’s atudy; all other records were destroyed after the company went out of business. Kempe at first signed his work intermittently with a triple wheatsheaf emblem taken from his coat of arms. After 1895, though still not used for every window, he adopted a single wheatsheaf, which remained unchanged for the rest of his life.
Lit: M Stavridi: Charles Eamer Kempe, 1988; P N H Collins: The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass, Liverpool, 2000
Restored: Cuckfield (1866, 1883-84 and 1891); Glynde (1894); Ovingdean (1869 – doubtful), Petworth (1903 with Tower)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Alban, altar; – St Michael, lectern; – St Nicholas, painted decoration and restored screen; Burgess Hill, – St John, pulpit and lectern; Chailey, – St Peter, pulpit; Crowborough, – All Saints, reredos etc; Cuckfield, pulpit; Findon, reredos surround (gone); Haywards Heath, – St Wilfrid, chancel ceiling (gone); Ovingdean, decoration, rood and reredos; Petworth, reredos and screen; Staplefield, decorations; Turners Hill, reredos; Withyham, – St John, reredos; Worthing, – St Andrew, screen and other fittings
Glass: Barcombe (attributed); Bexhill, – St Mark, Little Common; Bignor; Boxgrove; Brighton and Hove, – St Augustine; – St Luke, Queen’s Park; – St Mary; – St Nicholas; – St Paul; – St Peter; – St Peter, West Blatchington; – St Philip; Burpham; Bury; Buxted, – St Mary; Chailey, – St Mary; Coates; Coldwaltham; Coolhurst; Cowfold; Cuckfield; Danehill; Denton; Eastbourne, – St Peter, Meads (now in St Peter, Hydneye); East Grinstead, – St Swithun; East Lavant; Fittleworth; Fletching; Glynde; Groombridge; Hastings, – Holy Trinity; Henfield; Horsham, – St Mark (formerly, now in new church), – St Mary; Horsted Keynes; Hurstpierpoint; Kirdford; Lewes, – St John the Baptist, Southover; Lower Beeding; Oving; Ovingdean (made by T Baillie); Partridge Green; Patcham (attr); Petworth; Plaistow; Rye; Salehurst; Scaynes Hill; Seaford; Sedlescombe; Selmeston; Shermanbury; Shipley; Slaugham; South Malling; Southwick; Staplefield; Streat; Tortington; Turners Hill; Twineham; Warbleton; Washington; West Grinstead; West Hoathly; Westmeston; Withyham, – St John; – St Michael; Woodmancote; Woolbeding; Worthing, – St Andrew (much formerly in Brighton and Hove, – All Souls and – St James)
Kempe and Co
When C E Kempe (see immediately above) died in 1907, he left instructions that his studio should become a limited company under four of his closest associates. This was duly done and as Kempe and Co Ltd (never Kempe and Tower, as often stated, e g in the first edition of BE Sussex), the company was headed by his cousin W Tower. Tower was an architect by training and the main designer of glass was a former associate of Kempe, John William Lisle (1870-1927), who was one of the directors of the new company, as was A E Tombleson. The company’s glass followed Kempe’s idiom but much of it became increasingly routine and unimaginative. It can be distinguished from work produced under Kempe’s direct supervision by flatter and duller designs with a greater use of clear or white glass. There was a changed rebus, with a tower superimposed on the wheatsheaf, giving the impression that Tower was more closely involved on the glass side than was the case. Other works, including memorials, reredoses and embroidery helped to keep the company afloat with orders from the USA and parts of the then Empire. However, attempts to modernise the company’s style met with little success and in many cases glass by both Kempe and Kempe and Co is found in the same church, suggesting the later firm kept going largely by exploiting contacts that already existed. The economic downturn after 1929 affected the company’s order book substantially and in 1934 it went out of business.
P N H Collins: The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass, Liverpool, 2000
Glass: Alfriston; Barcombe; Bexhill, – St Peter; Bodle Street Green; Boxgrove; Brighton and Hove, – St Augustine; – St Bartholomew; – St Peter; – St Michael; Burgess Hill, – St Andrew; – St John; Buxted, – St Margaret; – St Mary; Chichester, – All Saints, Portfield (formerly, now in St George, Wyke); Clayton; Crawley Down; Cross-in-Hand; Danehill; Eastbourne, – St Peter, Meads (now in St Peter, Hydneye); Fittleworth; Fletching; Glynde; Groombridge; Henfield; High Hurstwood; Horsted Keynes; Hurstpierpoint; Kirdford; Lewes, – St John-sub-Castro; Lindfield; Lyminster; Midhurst; New Shoreham; Northiam; Offham; Oving; Ovingdean; Petworth; Plaistow; Selsey, – St Peter; Slaugham; Staplefield; Turners Hill; West Firle; West Hoathly; Wiston; Worthing, – St Andrew (formerly in Brighton and Hove, – All Souls and – St James)
Fitting: West Grinstead, reredos
H E Kendall
Henry Edward Kendall junior (1805-85) was a pupil of his father of the same name (1776-1875), a prolific designer of hospitals and workhouses and one of the founders of what became the RIBA, as was the son. Before the son went into independent practice, the two worked together. The son designed several large country houses, including one for the exiled Empress Eugénie of France at Farnborough, Hampshire, as well as parsonages, schools (on which he produced a book of designs) and a few churches. He also designed three lunatic asylums including the County Lunatic Asylum, later St Francis Mental Hospital, near Haywards Heath. He was District Surveyor for Hampstead from 1844 and the name of his nephew, Frederick Mew (1831/32-1898) had been added to the practice by 1877, when they designed Hampstead vestry hall.
Obit: The Builder 48 pp883-84
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Patrick (1858)
J J P Kendrick
Joseph John Pinnix Kendrick (1790-1832) was the son of a London statuary, another Joseph (also found as Josephus). The son studied at the RA Schools and subsequently exhibited frequently at the main RA. He produced a substantial number of monuments, but met several major disappointments when proposals were rejected or commissions were given to others. Thus, towards the end of his life he experienced major financial problems, which, in the eyes of some contemporaries, contributed to his early death.
Memorials: Donnington; Madehurst
Eric Henri Kennington (1888-1960) was the son of a Liverpool portrait painter with a Swedish mother. He was initially a painter and draughtsman and his bold and economical drawings were widely admired. He served in World War I until wounded, after which he became a war artist. As such, he depicted the appalling conditions in the trenches. He had an especial reverence for Lawrence of Arabia, whose book The Seven Pillars of Wisdom he illustrated. At about the same time he turned increasingly to sculpture, much of it architectural, and carved the effigy on Lawrence’s tomb in St Paul’s. He was again a war artist in World War II. Less known is his non-monumental sculpture, which shows the influence of native American and African work, sometimes reminiscent of J Epstein and closer than much British sculpture to the European mainstream of the period. He became an RA in 1952.
Lit: NAL Information file; DNB; Obit: The Times 16 April 1960
Memorials: Brighton and Hove, – St Helen Hangleton (tombstone); Hammerwood
A W Kenyon
Arthur William Kenyon (1885-1969) was a native of Sheffield where he was articled to a local architect, Henry Leslie Paterson (1861-1926) who designed at least one public library there and was involved in one or more local housing schemes. In 1906 Kenyon moved to London and joined the practice of David Barclay Niven (1864-1942) and Herbert Hardy Wigglesworth (1866-1949). His name was added to that of this practice in 1926 after Niven’s departure but there is some doubt whether he had worked there all the time previously, for in 1924 he is shown as in practice, apparently alone, at 22 Surrey Street, Strand (KD/L). Slightly earlier, he may also have been linked with the practice of Kenyon and Livock of Great James Street, SW1, found briefly between 1920 and 1922 (ibid) about which nothing has been found. Kenyon specialised in housing – he designed many houses at Welwyn Garden City and one type of prefab at the end of World War II. He wrote extensively and also designed hospitals, cinemas and schools. In 1936 a church in Harrow that he built was praised for its design, which was lacking in any period style, and in his earlier career, he did some work with H Braddock, who also designed a church in Crawley.
Designed: Crawley, – St Barnabas, Pound Hill (1955)
Mathieu or Matthaus Kessels (1784-1836) was Belgian by birth, but settled and worked in Rome, where he had studied under the Danish neo-classical sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1834). He produced both monuments and statues, including some for the British market.
See Barton, Kinder and Alderson.
T King and Sons
The firm of Thomas King and Sons of Bath can be traced from about 1760 to 1860. The founder (1741-1804) came from London and was later joined in the business by his two sons, Thomas junior and Charles. The long period of time in which the business was operating suggests there was a third generation, but this cannot be ascertained for certain. The firm produced both tablets and memorials of greater complexity, some of which were well designed, and they are to be found widely spread across the country, although there is unsurprisingly a large concentration in Somerset.
A B Knapp-Fisher
Arthur Bedford Knapp-Fisher (1888-1965) was a pupil of C S Spooner, though after he went into practice by himself in 1912, he moved away from the Arts and Crafts idiom of his teacher. He reappears after World War I in 1922 as a partner in the firm of Knapp-Fisher, Powell and Russell at 135 Ebury Street, SW1 (KD/L). Knapp-Fisher designed many churches, schools and hospitals and in the 1930s was professor of architecture at the Royal College of Art. He was also responsible for the restoration of at least one bombed church in north London after World War II and worked on the Savoy chapel in central London.
Designed: Crawley, – St Leonard, Langley Green (1954-55)
Charles E Knight (1901-90) was born at Hove and spent most of his life in Sussex; he studied initially at the Brighton School of Art and then at the RA Schools. From 1934 he lived at Ditchling and also taught at the Brighton School. He was best known as a landscape artist in a conservative style, despite being taught by Walter Sickert (1860-1942), and was a skilled watercolourist. He produced many scenes of Sussex for the wartime Recording Britain project. He also designed inn signs, probably in conjunction with his colleague at the Brighton School of Art, J L Denman, who was the main architect to the Kemp Town Brewery. His glass was made by both Lowndes and Drury and Barton, Kinder and Alderson. He was tutor to the present Queen and Princess Margaret.
Lit: NAL Information file
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – Good Shepherd; – St Matthias, Ditchling Road; Burwash Weald; Ditchling; Eridge Green; Hailsham; Hastings, – St John, Hollington; Horsted Keynes; Keymer; Seaford, – St Leonard
Paintings: Brighton and Hove, – St Patrick, Hove
Statue: Brighton and Hove, – Good Shepherd, Dyke Road
J E Knox
James Erskine Knox (1841-1918) was born in Lambeth, the son of a turner from whom he probably learned the first elements of woodworking. He was apprenticed to T Earp as a woodcarver, and was employed by him for several years. Among those for whom he subsequently worked were Somers Clarke junior and J F Bentley, whose assistant he was during the construction of Westminster cathedral. He was a member of the Art Workers Guild. After living at various addresses in south London, he settled finally in Wimbledon.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Martin, reredos and other fittings; Woolbeding, reredos, pulpit and pews