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Reginald Windsor Sackville (-West) (1817-96) was born in London, the younger son of the 5th Earl de la Warr and was rector of Withyham from 1841 to 1865. He had ecclesiological sympathies and on being first ordained had served as curate to Henry Manning whilst the latter was still in the Church of England. Withyham was a family living and during the time he was there he was instrumental in securing the appointment of J M Neale as warden of Sackville College, East Grinstead, in which his family had an interest. In 1871 he inherited the barony of Buckhurst by special remainder from his mother and about the same time dropped West from his surname. Two years later he succeeded his unmarried brother as 7th Earl de la Warr and gave up his orders. Thus, in 1881 he called himself simply ‘peer’ and he died in London. His artistic interests were shared by his youngest sister Arabella Bannerman.
Obit: The Times 24 Jan 1896
Painting: Withyham, – St Michael
St Ann’s Gate Architects
This practice of restoration and conservation architects is based in the Close at Salisbury and works both on houses and churches. Under its previous name of Michael Drury Architects the best known work of the practice was the new west end of Portsmouth cathedral, dating from 1991. The present partners are, as well as Michael Drury, Antony Feltham-King and Melanie Latham.
Restored: Boxgrove (2008-09)
J P St Aubyn
ames Piers St Aubyn (1815-95) was the son of Rev Robert St Aubyn, vicar of Powick, Worcestershire who was related to Lord St Leven of St Michael’s Mount, Cornwall, which the son was to restore and extend. He was a pupil of Thomas Fulljames of Gloucester (see seoarate entry) and became both Surveyor to the Middle Temple, where he was involved in the restoration of the Temple church and had his London office, and an advisory architect to the ICBS. From 1885 he had a partner, Henry John Wadling (see separate entry), who gradually took over the practice and continued it under the same name after St Aubyn’s death. Particularly in his earlier career St Aubyn worked on many churches in Cornwall, where he is reputed to have restored 78 churches and designed 20 new ones, as well as some in Gloucestershire and Somerset. Such work was undertaken mainly from Devonport, in the development of which on family land he played a significant part and where he had a second office. The chief interest of the practice was churches and as his reputation grew, he ranged more widely in his later years to other parts of south and eastern England and even to the north. However, his work was not limited to churches; in Somerset, he was associated with the development as a resort of Minehead for the Luttrell estate and he is said to have designed 25 country houses as well as public and commercial buildings.
Lit: P Newberry: Introducing … J P St Aubyn, Architectural Historian 11 (November 2020) pp16-18; BAL Biog File
Designed: Cross-in-Hand (1863); Selsey, – St Peter (1864-65
Restored: Rudgwick (1887-88); Slaugham (1880)
H J Salisbury
Henry James Salisbury (1864-1916) was born in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, the son of a plumber and glazier, and was apprenticed there as a decorator, before opening his works in St Albans, where he was established as an artist in stained glass by 1889; later his work extended also to mosaics ( e g at Clapham, Bedfordshire (1913)). Around 1897 he opened a business at 130 Brompton Road, London, which in 1899 became briefly known as Salisbury Brothers and Davies (KD/L). It is impossible to identify Davies, but the second brother was Frank Owen Salisbury (1874-1962), who was a well known portrait and mural painter in the earlier C20. He had been apprenticed to his elder brother in St Albans and in consequence continued to design stained glass for most of his career. Henry’s private address was in St Albans in the mid-1890s and though by 1901 he had moved to Hampstead, he still maintained a residence in the town in 1914 (KD/Herts). In 1901 he was once again without partners, though his business address was unchanged until he moved to 18 John Street, Bedford Row around 1908. His name was listed there in KD/L until 1935, well after his death, but it is not known who was actually running the business.
Source: DNB (for F O Salisbury)
Anthony Salvin (1799-1881) was originally a pupil of John Paterson of Edinburgh (there is more than one architect of this name and whereabouts but the one who died in 1832, a former associate of Robert Adam, is most likely) and, after moving to London, of John Nash (1752-1835). Salvin developed an interest in mediaeval architecture (he was an FSA at the age of 25), though in his early days he more usually worked in the Tudor style, designing mainly country houses and castles. However, he was more open than most of his contemporaries to the accurate use of the gothic style in churches and in 1841 became an honorary member of the Cambridge Camden Society (later Ecclesiological Society), for whom he restored the Round Church at Cambridge. This inclined him for a while to the Romanesque for new churches, which probably in turn contributed to his falling out with the Ecclesiologists, who did not share this preference. As well as new work, he restored Durham and Wells cathedrals. In later life he did less work on churches, though he never gave up entirely, unlike near contemporaries such as D Burton. Despite suffering a stroke in 1856 he continued practising until shortly before he died. He was descended from an ancient landed family in Yorkshire, a fact that weighed heavily upon him. He spent his final years in Northchapel, where he built a house, though he was buried in the new cemetery at nearby Fernhurst.
Lit: J Allibone: Anthony Salvin, Pioneer of Gothic Revival Architecture, Cambridge 1988
Designed: Newhaven, – ‘St John Baptist’ (1877-78 – supposedly, but this appears to be an error as there is no such church in the town)
Restored: Fernhurst (1881); Northchapel (1876-77); Worth (1869-71)
P San Casciani
Paul San Casciani (b1935) trained in glass design and making at J Powell and Sons from 1950. He afterwards worked there and also with C J Edwards. He now works and teaches in Oxford and at West Dean College and has written about the technique of stained glass making.
J J Sanders
There is more than one mason called Sanders with the intitial J in London during the C19 and there is no certainty about the identity of the J J Sanders who was a prolific producer of monuments, with an address in Fitzroy Square. A business of the name can be traced between c1812 and c1888 so there was almost certainly more than one generation involved. Roscoe (p1092) identifies the presumed founder tentatively with a mason of the name, not more fully identified, who carried out repairs to St John, Westminster in 1812.
Sarum Partnership New Sarum Architects
As the name suggests, this partnership was established at Salisbury in 1952 and its current head is Rex Butland; an earlier name linked to the practice is Christopher Romain. They have worked on many churches, both designing additions and undertaking conservation work and have designed and extended houses.
Extended: Crowborough, – All Saints (1991, design carried out in modified form 2002)
K A Saunders
Full details are scarce, but the artist of this name who produced windows by sand-blasting for Middleton church in 1979 is said to have been living at Felpham at the time, though there is no record of him there.
Thomas Saunders is said to have been local to Brighton when he designed the Chapel Royal in 1793, though the Universal British Directory of that year does not give anyone of the name in Sussex. The only known architect with the right name had an address at Golden Square, London and died in 1798.
Designed: Brighton, – Chapel Royal (1793)
W G Saunders W A Saunders
W(illiam Henry) Gualbert (or less frequently Albert) Saunders (1837-1923) appears as a pupil of W Burges in 1865 and although the initial link was presumably in the field of architecture, subsequently made furniture and tiles for him (examples of both are to be found in the catalogue of the Manchester Art Gallery), but the association centred on the supply of stained glass. At the start of his artistic activity, in 1869, he also designed a Catholic church at Weston-in-Arden, Warwickshire for his brother-in-law. However, he did not pursue architecture as a career for long, for in the same year as designing the church and after a brief partnership with H Holiday, he started his own manufactory in Endell Street, Covent Garden. Here he continued his close association with Burges and his work is to be found in many of Burges’s later works including St Fin Barre’s cathedral, Cork. Saunders employed designers such as the young C Whall and H W Lonsdale, whilst references to Saunders and Weekes in the late 1860s suggest that Fred Weekes (1833-93), whose work has not been identified in Sussex, was not only an employee but a partner. Saunders’s work was of a high quality and has been mistaken for that of Morris and Co. It is thus a mystery why he left the country in 1880, handing over his business to his assistant, W Worrall and apparently ceasing all artistic activity. However, there is little doubt that he returned and lived on until 1923, when what must be his death is recorded in Surrey. He does not appear obviously in any census during that time, although searching for him is complicated because of the length of his name and the differences in spelling.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Mary (attr); – St Michael
A Savell A Savell and Co Savell and Young
Arthur Savell (1858/59-1933) was an Irishman born at Kilkenny. According to an unusually full entry in KD/L 1922 his firm was founded in 1887 and as he does not appear in the 1881 census, it is likely that he was then still in Ireland, which given his age makes it likely that he was trained there. The earliest contemporary reference to the firm was actually in the following year, again in KD/L, when it was known as Savell and Young with an address at 29 Albany Street, London NW. In that year it produced a window at Blewbury, Berkshire, which was designed by J F Bentley. A year later it was at 20 Albany Street, where it probably remained for the rest of its existence in London, becoming A Savell and Co in 1890; nothing is known of Young. There does, however, seem to have been some imprecision about the company’s address, for when one of the windows at Lewes was produced, the firm was said to be at 30 Albany Street. A further complication is over dating – glass signed by Savell and Co is found bearing dates as early as 1872 (including one of the windows at Lewes with other examples elsewhere dated in the 1870s), but it cannot be so early and dates almost certainly from c1895, a reminder of how misleading dates on windows can be. By 1901 (when he was present there at the time of the census), Savell had a further branch in Cambridge, initially at 31 Regent Street and in 1911 at 94 in the same street. In 1902 it was sufficiently well regarded to supply the east window of St Bene’t, one of the best known churches in the city. The firm disappears from KD/L between 1916 and the entry for 1922 already mentioned and it is likely that it had retreated to Cambridge because of World War I and its aftermath. Thereafter, the only further reference in KD/L was in 1924, when just a Cambridge address was given and the latest known glass is that of 1927 in Littleport church, Cambridgeshire. In the 1922 entry, the firm claimed to make not only stained glass, including both domestic and heraldic, but also memorial brasses.
Glass: Lewes, – St John-sub-Castro
A painter of this name is said to have painted some of the wall-decoration at Ovingdean church in 1893 for ‘Gibbs and Co’, but neither he nor the company can be satisfactorily identified. The most likely candidate is an architect called Arthur William Saville (1853/54-1915) who is mostly to be found at various addresses in north London, including Enfield and Islington, down to 1911 and features in WWA 1914. On one occasion only, in 1901, he was living at Littlehampton which at least suggests a link with Sussex. However, little is known of his career beyond designing one pub in Bethnal Green, east London in 1888, and there is no indication that he was also a painter. Also conceivable is that there was a misspelling of A Savell’s name (see, for example the glass maker immediately above), but in his case too, he is not recorded as a painter.
Painted decoration: Ovingdean
Harry Scarlett (1857-1919) is described as an architect of Uckfield in 1888, but he is clearly the Harry ‘Scarlet’ who was at his father’s house, Downlands, Uckfield in 1881, described as a student of law and formerly of Trinity College, Cambridge. He became Harry Scarlett LL.B, who lived at West Firle and was a JP and the holder of other public positions. He was a member of the Sussex Archaeological Society from 1888 and described himself as a barrister and architect in 1901; by 1911 the ‘architect’ was missing. However, he can never have been more than an amateur in the latter capacity.
Restored: Uckfield (1888)
Peter Gaspar Scheemakers (1691-1781) was born in Antwerp, the son of a successful sculptor of the same name. He was trained first by his father and then in Copenhagen. He travelled to Italy before settling in London, where he attained great success, though not until after a further visit to Italy. His monuments and busts were well received, as were the various garden ornaments and fireplaces he produced. In later years, much of the output of his workshop was produced by assistants, while he concentrated on the business aspects. Amongst those who passed through his workshop were Sir H Cheere (probably) and J Nollekens. Towards the end of his long life he returned to Antwerp.
Lit: I Roscoe: Peter Scheemakers, WS 61 (1999) pp163-304; DNB
Memorial: East Grinstead, – St Swithun (attr)
J Schwerdt and Partners
John Richard Schwerdt (1924-89) studied architecture at Brighton College of Art after wartime service in the Navy and established his practice in Lewes in 1954. In 1961 he set up a partnership with David Oscar Russell (1922-2007), who was to be responsible for work on Selmeston church, and perhaps others. Though never large, the practice was responsible for both schools and at least one church, with small offices in London, Barrow-in-Furness and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, as well as some work in France. Conservation work was one of their specialities, including the adaptation as workshops of the former Beard’s brewery in Lewes and they designed several buildings at Chailey Heritage. Schwerdt himself was active in the preservation and adaptation of historic buildings, particularly in Lewes, and took a leading part in the 1960s against a planned inner relief road for the town. After Schwerdt’s death the Partnership merged with a long established practice in Newcastle, R N Mackellar and Partners, and is now known as Mackellar Schwerdt, but retains premises in Lewes in the former Fitzroy House. Among the the more recent partners is Andrew Goodwin (AG) who worked on the Southover project.
Lit: BAL Biog file (Schwerdt); Obit (Schwerdt): RIBAJ 97 (1990) p114; Sussex Pioneer, C20 2018 no 2 pp20-25
Repaired: Selmeston (1967-69)
Extended: Lewes, – St John the Baptist, Southover (AG) (2009)
A G Scott
Adrian Gilbert Scott (1883-1963) was the younger brother of Sir Giles G Scott (see this section below) and like him was articled to T Moore. Afterwards they frequently worked together, e g on Liverpool Cathedral and the House of Commons. Adrian Scott also practised independently, mostly designing Roman Catholic churches, which were stylistically close to his brother’s work. He worked on Sir E Lutyens’s grand design for the Roman Catholic cathedral at Liverpool after the architect’s death, but was no more successful in building it. Though the family had property at Ninfield, Scott lived in Hampstead, of which he was an enthusiastic defender.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Times 24 April 1963; RIBAJ 70 (July 1963) pp298-99
Designed: Hastings, – St Leonard (1953-61 – with his brother)
Altered: Ninfield (1923)
C M O Scott
Charles Marriott Oldrid Scott (1880-1952), the son of J O Scott (see this section below), was a pupil of Sir R Blomfield and then assistant to his father before spending time in the office of G F Bodley in preparation for becoming his father’s partner in 1904. He appears also to have worked in T Moore‘s office. After his father’s death, he completed his outstanding commissions and maintained a busy practice for the rest of his life. This included some domestic work but consisted mostly of restoring and repairing churches and designing fittings. He was in partnership with the considerably older Charles Thomas Miles (1852-1930) who was mainly based in Bournemouth.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Completed: Brighton and Hove, – St Philip (1910-11 – with father)
Restored: Coolhurst (1931-33); Peasmarsh (1925-27)
Fitting: Coolhurst, font-cover
E E Scott
Edmund Evan Scott (1828-95) spent most of his career in Brighton, his place of birth and his practice was mostly local, though his life is at many points hard to follow. This probably stems from what appears an aversion to publicity too consistently followed not to have been deliberate. In this he differs from his local contemporaries like A Loader, C E Clayton and J G Gibbins. Scott had an artistic background but apart from a brief appearance at a boarding school in Uckfield in 1841, nothing further is known, including his training, before his election as an ARIBA in 1851, which would have marked its conclusion. At that time he gave his address as in London, but even here the actual signed admission papers for that year, which might have provided clues to the architect under whom he was trained, are missing. In the census of 1851 he was in Brighton visiting relatives, but he was almost certainly still working in London, possibly in Francis Cranmer Penrose’s (1817-1903) office as he gave the same address as him in the RIBA member’s list for 1852; Penrose is the only architect listed in directories under that address. If Scott did work for Penrose it did not leave any decisive mark, for Penrose was primarily a classicist (as well as being a keen astronomer) and his most prominent position was as Surveyor of St Paul’s, to which he was appointed in 1853. In the same year Scott made what proved to be a permanent move to Brighton, where his residential address was at 42 Russell Square, Brighton. In 1855 his address was given as 8 Pavilion Buildings (KD), but this was presumably that of his practice. His earliest certain building dates from 1863, but he must have been reasonably active in the town during his first years to make ends meet. The only project he is known to have been involved in was in 1857, when he and Michael Prendergast Manning (1830-1918), a London architect with slight Brighton connections (BN 15p646), won second premium in a competition to adapt the Dome in Brighton as a concert hall. In a long career Manning is not known to have worked again with Scott, whose first full partner was R G Suter (see this section below) with whom in 1863 he designed St Andrew, Portslade by Sea. Their office was at 46a Regency Square, but in 1869 Suter was back in London before emigrating to Australia. More is known of Scott’s next partnership with his former pupil R S Hyde which lasted from 1874 to 1880, during which they did much commercial and domestic work. This period of Scott’s life is probably better documented because Hyde was more adept as a publicist. A final partnership with F T Cawthorn had started by 1884 (BN 47 p51) and it is likely that Cawthorn increasingly played the leading part, for the churches designed by the practice at this time show a new awareness of the Perp style. Scott’s most remarkable church is St Bartholomew, Brighton, remarkable above all for its height, a feature in which, if Somers Clarke junior‘s recollections are to be believed, Father A D Wagner had a decisive hand.
Lit: N Taylor: Wagnerian High Church, St Bartholomew’s, Brighton, AR 137 (1965) pp212-17; Byzantium in Brighton, AR 139 (1966) pp274-77; BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew (1872-74); – St James (1873-75 – as S and Hyde – dem); – St Matthew (c1880 – as S and Hyde, not built); St Saviour (plans 1880 – as S and Hyde; built 1885-86 – as S and Cawthorn – dem); Buxted, – St Mary (1885-86 as S and Cawthorn); Portslade by Sea (1863-64 with Suter); South Lancing (1880 – as S and Hyde – not executed); Worthing, – St Botolph, Heene (1872-73 and 1878-79)
Restored/extended: Albourne (1859 – attr); Brighton and Hove, – Annunciation (1880-81 as S and Hyde and 1892 as S and Cawthorn); – All Souls, Eastern Road (1879 – as S and Hyde – dem); – Chapel Royal (nd, with Hyde); – Christ Church, Montpelier Road (1886 – as S and Cawthorn – dem); St John, Carlton Hill (1879 – as S and Hyde); Buxted, – St Margaret (1879); Clayton (1893 – as S and Cawthorn); Denton (1865-66); Eastbourne, – Christ Church (1879 – as S and Hyde); Keymer (1866 as S and Suter and 1890 as S and Cawthorn); Portslade (1867 (possibly) and 1869-70); Streat (1882 and possibly earlier)
Fitting: Lower Beeding, pulpit
Sir George G Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-78) was the son and grandson of clergymen, whose strongly evangelical father designed his own church at Gawcott, Buckinghamshire. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that his son showed an early interest in churches, a number of which in the vicinity of his father’s parish were of much greater architectural merit. He was articled to James Edmeston (1791-1867) in London, whose practice centred on modest housing, hardly to the young man’s liking, but also gave him valuable experience as a surveyor. Edmeston was also a strong evangelical, whose name survives today only as a writer of hymns. On leaving Edmeston, Scott spent a short time with Peto and Grissell, perhaps the leading building contractor of the day; this enhanced still further his understanding of the more practical aspects of his profession. A year later he became assistant for two years to Henry Roberts (1803-76), while he was working on the classical Fishmonger’s Hall in the City. On starting on his own account, Scott designed workhouses which were greatly in demand following the reformed Poor Law of 1834, at first by himself and from 1838 in partnership with his former assistant, William Bonython Moffatt (1812-87), a fellow-pupil of Edmeston; between them they designed over 40 workhouses. Scott’s earliest church dates from 1837 and by the time his partnership with Moffatt ended in 1845, he had far outstripped his partner and was on the way to becoming the most celebrated architect of the age, primarily in the gothic style, though his classical Foreign Office building in London shows he was at least equally competent in that idiom. His huge practice extended into Europe and beyond across the British empire. It included public buildings (eg St Pancras Station and the Albert Memorial) but in terms of quantity churches and cathedrals predominated – it has been estimated that he designed or worked on nearly 500 places of worship. Gavin Stamp suggests that one reason for his success in this field was his ability to get on with the senior clergy, bishops and deans. In later life Scott came to be ashamed of his first churches, which were typical of their 1830s date, though his first more scholarly efforts predate his encounter with the Ecclesiologists, whose doctrinaire position was hard for an aspiring architect to ignore, even if his own sympathies differed. The consequence was that the Ecclesiologists withheld their wholehearted approval from Scott, as compared with some of his more amenable contemporaries. Much of his restoration work was more cautious than his contemporaries or later generations allowed, as a chapter in his Recollections and a section of the introduction by Dean Burgon of Chichester show. In particular, he criticised architects who removed genuine mediaeval features which they did not consider appropriate. Nevertheless, changing fashions as well as health problems and the sudden death of his wife caused a falling off of work in the last years of his life, when his approach incurred increasingly hostile criticism, notably from W Morris. As far as Sussex churches were concerned, he did only restorations, notably the rebuilding of the tower and spire of Chichester cathedral after their collapse in 1861. The extent of his personal involvement in smaller projects undertaken by the practice has been questioned, on account of its size as T G Jackson, a pupil, commented in his own Recollections. However, another pupil R Nevill left a different impression, stating that in every case a drawing that left the office was seen by Scott (quoted in Stamp (p73)). There seems, though, to be little doubt that the sheer volume of business passing through the office and Scott’s frequent absences on business meant that he had little time to devote to training and left it mostly to his senior assistants. As a consequence, many pupils found their experience in the office less than exciting, though its efficient organisation was praised by contemporaries, as was Scott’s kindly and considerate nature. At his death he was accorded the honour of burial in Westminster Abbey, of which he had been surveyor. The fame that this demonstrates perhaps helps to explain the many wrong ascriptions of buildings to him; this is a particular problem in Sussex, probably made worse because of confusion with his namesake E E Scott (see this section above).
Lit: P Barnwell, G Tyack and W Whyte (eds): Sir George Gilbert Scott 1811-1878, Donington, 2014; D Cole: The Works of Sir Gilbert Scott, 1980; R Dixon (ed): Sir Gilbert Scott and the Scott Dynasty, 1980; RIBA Library: Typescript of Buildings designed by Sir G G Scott, 1957; Sir G G Scott: Personal and Professional Recollections, revised edition by G Stamp, Stamford, 1995; G Stamp: Gothic for the Steam Age (Illustrated Biography of George Gilbert Scott), 2015
Restored: Albourne (1859 – attr but doubtful); Ardingly (1855); Arundel (1874); Boxgrove (1864-65); Brighton and Hove, – St Peter, Preston (nd – ?error for East Preston); Clapham (1873-74); East Preston (1869); Findon (1866-67); Hartfield (1851 – survey only); Harting (1853 – attr); Icklesham (nd – ?error); Itchingfield (1865-66); Little Horsted (1862-63); Petworth (nd – ?error); Portslade (1867 – attr but doubtful); Rottingdean (1851-56); Uckfield (nd – possibly in error for Little Horsted nearby)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, – St Patrick, pulpit; Hurstpierpoint, – Holy Trinity, font (restored)
George G Scott junior
George Gilbert Scott junior (1837-97) was the eldest son of Sir George G Scott (see immediately above) and studied at Eton before being articled to his father and then going to Cambridge. He developed his own artistic personality, preferring late mediaeval gothic as a model and admired the work of Morris and Co, for whom he produced designs for wallpaper. He did his standing in the Church of England no good by becoming a Roman Catholic after his father died, to the strong disapproval of his brother J O Scott (see this section below). Following court proceedings in 1883, his eccentric behaviour caused him to be certified insane and he was put into hospital in Northampton as ‘a wandering lunatic’ in 1888. From there he went to France and on his return appeared to have recovered somewhat. He had independent means and died at the Midland Hotel at St Pancras (BN 72 p699), one of his father’s masterpieces. His unfinished work was taken over by J O Scott, who was far more pedestrian (I had chosen this word before discovering that Gavin Stamp, in his introduction to his edition of Sir George G Scott’s Recollections had also used it), just as George junior had taken over their father’s.
Lit: G Stamp: An Architect of Promise; George Gilbert Scott Junior, 2002
Restored: Clapham (1873-74 – attr); Findon (1866-67 – attr); Ninfield (1874-76 – unexecuted); Pevensey (1877-79)
Glass: Haywards Heath, – St Wilfrid (with T Garner)
Sir Giles G Scott
Giles Gilbert Scott (1880-1960) was the eldest son of George G Scott junior (see immediately above) and was brought up with his brother A G Scott (see this section above) at Ninfield in a house belonging to his mother’s family, after his father was declared insane. Although a Roman Catholic following his father’s conversion, he is said to have taken great interest in the local churches in the vicinity of the village. He was articled to T Moore, a former pupil and assistant of his father, and was then briefly an assistant of G F Bodley. However, within a few months he won the competition for Liverpool Anglican cathedral at the age of 23, which set him on the path towards becoming the most prolific architect of his generation. He had a fertile mind, which came up with a variety of solutions, but after the 1920s, the middle course he followed between traditionalists and modernists led to a fall from popularity, most notably over his abortive scheme for rebuilding Coventry cathedral after World War II. As well as churches, he designed Battersea and Bankside (now Tate Modern) power stations and Waterloo Bridge, London. By the nature of such projects, his role was often that of a consulting architect, mainly responsible for the elevations. His churches were generally his own unaided work; to the end of his life, they were in a simplified gothic and show a love for plain walling, a characteristic which also marked many of his industrial buildings.
Lit: G Stamp: Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, in R Dixon (ed): Sir Gilbert Scott and the Scott Dynasty, 1980, pp48-53; DNB
Designed: Hastings, – St Leonard (1953-61 – with A G Scott)
Altered: Brighton and Hove, – St Bartholomew (1924 – mostly unexecuted)
Fitting: Kingston Buci, war memorial
J O Scott
John Oldrid Scott (1841-1913) was the second son of Sir George G Scott (see this section above) and Oldrid was his mother’s maiden name. He trained in his father’s office from 1860 and then worked there. Among the projects with which he was involved was the Foreign Office building. He took over an increasing amount of the work of the practice as his father’s health declined and in due course inherited it, though he reduced its size fairly rapidly. He did produce some designs in Renaissance style, but his interests were seen as principally ecclesiastical, so that by the time of his death he was widely regarded as very old fashioned, despite his preference for C14 gothic as a model. His obituaries were less than enthusiastic, using phrases such as ‘a sound workman’, but his career was successful enough – he worked on several cathedrals and also at Arundel castle – and was a consulting architect to the ICBS. He also succeeded G E Street (see this section below) as Oxford Diocesan Architect. He died at Bexhill and is buried at Peasmarsh, where he had just bought a house.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 104 pp643, 650-51, RIBAJ 20 p614
Designed: Brighton and Hove, – St Philip, Hove (also known as Aldrington – 1894-1911); Chailey, – St Mary (1876)
Fittings: Coolhurst, reredos and pulpit; Goring, font; Maresfield, organ case; South Bersted, font; West Hoathly, stalls and lectern
Restored/altered: Arundel (1893 – consulted); Brighton and Hove, – St Leonard, Aldrington (1906 – not carried out); – St Margaret (1874 – dem); Chailey, – St Peter (1878-79 and 1886); Coolhurst (1889 and 1890-1916); Fletching (1880-81); Framfield (1897); Frant (1880); Hartfield (1894); Maresfield (1875-79); Newick (1886-1905); Oving (1897 – probably carried out 1900); Stanmer (1905)
Sally Scott is a glass engraver and also a painter. She studied at Croydon School of Art and the RA Schools and in addition to teaching, was from 1986 to 2000 in partnership with David Peace. Their joint work and Sally Scott’s work alone is to be found in churches, cathedrals, universities and other public buildings all over the country, including Norwich cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Many of her paintings are portraits.
Engraved glass: Newick
W G Scott
William Gillbee Scott (1857-1930) was articled to M E Habershon and E P L Brock and then worked in E Christian’s office. He was no relation of Sir George G Scott (see this section above), but rather a grandson on the maternal side of Matthew Habershon (1789-1852) and thus nephew of M E Habershon and his brother. The second name of Gillbee that he shared with William Gillbee Habershon, M E Habershon’s brother and partner, was the maiden name of Matthew Habershon’s wife. W G Scott perpetuated the link with the Habershons by naming his son, also an architect, Bernard Wardlaw Habershon Scott (1888-1978). He was to become his father’s partner in the latter’s final years, though he was still listed by himself in KD/L as late as 1924. The relationship with the Habershons was a long-lasting one for in 1900 W Gillbee Scott was to write M E Habershon’s obituary in Proc RIBA. W G Scott went into independent practice in 1882 and in 1914 his address was 25 Bedford Row WC (KD/L). He was active in the RIBA and elsewhere in the interests of the architectural profession. Most of his buildings are schools or other public buildings, though with his son he worked on the rebuilding of a cigar factory in Spitalfields, east London in 1922-25 and designed a nonconformist chapel as late as 1925. He also restored Enfield church, Middlesex in 1889.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 139 p418; RIBAJ 37 p712
Designed: Horsham, – Holy Trinity (1899-1900)
Restored/altered: Brighton, – St Mark (1890); Eastbourne, – St John Meads (1895 – bombed)
J D Sedding
John Dando Sedding (1838-91) was born in Eton, Berkshire though he moved aged two to Edensor, Derbyshire when his father became a schoolmaster there. His elder brother Edmund (1836-68) became a pupil of G E Street (see this section below) in 1853 and was later joined by his brother. The two brothers were close and and in 1862 went into practice together in Penzance, specialising in church restorations. Edmund, as well as being an architect, was an ardent church musician, an interest inherited from his father and was particularly famed for his books of carols. J D Sedding’s early work was also largely in the West Country, even after his brother’s premature death, though after a year he moved to Bristol in the hope of acquiring more business. Following his marriage into a wealthy family he undertook at least two lengthy European tours which did much to broaden his horizons. In 1874 he moved again to London, where he became involved with several leading artistic figures with whom he was later to work on projects such as Holy Trinity, Sloane Square, including E Burne-Jones, F W Pomeroy and C Whall. He rose to prominence during the 1880s and he retained links with the west, exemplified by his appointment as diocesan architect in Bath and Wells in 1881 He continued to undertake numerous restorations, particularly in Somerset, many of which were criticised for their severity. His new churches were predominantly of a High Church character and show the influence of G F Bodley and his partner T Garner, but there is none by him in Sussex. His preferred style was late gothic in most cases, though his Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell is unusual in being in the early Italian Renaissance style he had seen on his travels and he also used this for the few houses he designed. He was an early member of the Art Workers Guild, of which he was the second Master, and his interest in the Arts and Crafts movement was demonstrated by designs for textiles, wallpapers and metalwork, In addition and throughout his career, he designed many fittings, especially for the churches that were his own work. After his sudden death, considered by many to have been caused by over-work, his practice was inherited by Edmund’s son, Edmund Harold (1863-1921), who had been a pupil with whom he had worked subsequently. He continued very much in the same idiom, though many of his uncle’s more prominent and uncompleted works were finished by H Wilson, another former pupil.
Lit: Architectural Association: A Memorial of the Late J D Sedding, 1892; DNB (for both brothers); K Jordan: A Benign Paterfamilias: John Dando Sedding, his Family and Followers, ET 57 (2019) pp3-20
Fitting: Framfield, reredos (probably)
J Seely Lord Mottistone
Henry John Alexander Seely (known as ‘Jack’ and from 1947, when he inherited the title from his father, Lord Mottistone) (1899-1963) was in practice from 1926 with P Paget. After World War II the two did much rebuilding work, including Lambeth Palace, the Charterhouse and canons’ houses at Westminster Abbey. They also designed several new or rebuilt churches in London; most are conservative in idiom, but display certain unexpected influences, e g C18 ones with galleries, and on occasion they reveal more modernist tendencies. Seely became Surveyor to St Paul’s Cathedral in 1956. He lived in the Isle of Wight and did much work there.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Times 19 Jan 1963
Restored: Petworth (1953 – attr)
John Selden’s family is recorded in Petworth from the early C17 and he himself appears in the accounts for the building and fitting out of Petworth House from 1687 to 1697. During this time he was mainly assisting Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721) with the remarkable wood-carving there, much of which is clearly by Selden, though widely attributed to the more famous Gibbons. He continued to live in Petworth until his death in a fire in 1715. No work executed during this later period is known for sure, since his only known monument is undated.
W H Seth-Smith
William Howard Seth-Smith (1852-1928), often known by his second fore-name, was born of Scottish ancestry at Wonersh, Surrey and and from 1889 he shared premises at 46 Lincolns Inn with A R G Fenning, though this may have fallen short of a full partnership. From 1905 until shortly before his death he was a full partner of W E Monro, still at 46 Lincoln’s Inn Fields (KD/L). Some of his earlier work was in the idiom of Art Nouveau and he also designed church fittings. Otherwise, much of his work consisted of alterations to country houses, a number of them in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire. Seth-Smith’s name was retained in the title of the successor partnership, which was probably led by Monro, long after his death, so he was not involved in the practice’s only work in Sussex. The address of the practice in 1957 was in Gray’s Inn, where another partner, A E Matthew, is also listed.
Designed (in name): Eastbourne, – St John Meads (1955-57)
A Seward and Co
The firm, initially of ironmongers, was founded in Lancaster in the early C19 by Abraham Seward (1760-1823). After his son Charles (1787-1825) joined, the firm started to make stained glass. That side of the work was to become more prominent in the late C19, after 1895 in fact, which was well after Charles’s son Abraham junior (1815-1904) took over, supported initially by his brother, Charles junior (1818-1889). However, the company was already making some glass before the establishment of the best known manufacturer in Lancaster (Shrigley and Hunt (see this section below)), though the latter was always much the larger enterprise. The latest known glass by Seward’s was in fact made around 1920, by which time another Charles (d1930) was in charge; most of its work is to be found in the North West.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, – St Barnabas, Hove
G H Shackle
George Harvey Shackle (1853-1922) was born in Cambridge and trained initially as a stone-carver, which may account for his liking for elaborately carved detail, even late in his life. Turning to architecture, as a student he won RIBA prizes for drawing in 1877 and 1882. Then and in 1891 he was lodging at 8 Great Marylebone Street, London, by which time he had designed at least two houses in Cambridge. Shortly after 1891 he married and in 1901 he was living in Friern Barnet, Middlesex. However, by 1903 he had moved to Marlborough (KD/Wilts), where he was in practice at 9, The Green until his death in the town.
Extended: Eastbourne, – Christ Church (1921-22)
One of the many poorly identified designers used by J Powell and Sons in the late C!9 is known today only by his surname of Sharp. An artist whose name is given as ‘Sharpe’ also worked for Powell’s elsewhere and it seems likely that this is the same person.
Glass: North Mundham
Thomas Sharp (1805-82) exhibited at the RA even before he entered its Schools in 1831. He continued to do so for most of his life from various addresses in London. He produced only a few monuments, but a considerable quantity of busts, for which he was best known. More unusually, he was also a designer of silverware.
R N Shaw
Richard Norman Shaw (1831-1912) was born in Edinburgh but his family moved to London when he was 15. There he became a pupil of William Burn (1789-1870), a fellow Scot with an office in London; he also attended the RA Schools before working in the offices of G E Street and A Salvin (see this section below and above) and then starting to practise independently in 1863, initially in partnership with William Eden Nesfield (1835-88). Shaw quickly became one of the most respected architects of his generation and inspired many younger architects, not all his pupils, and influenced the foundation of the Art Workers Guild. His most famous surviving building is the former Scotland Yard building on the Embankment in London. Many of his domestic and public buildings were in the so-called Queen Anne Style, a term he appears to have invented, though in many of his later works he used a more conventionally classical idiom, the best example of which is the Piccadilly Hotel in London. His churches, mostly early or linked to places where he already had clients, remained gothic and often reveal the influence of G F Bodley and G G Scott junior (see this section above).
Lit: A Saint: Richard Norman Shaw, 1976
Designed: Groombridge (1883)
Restored: Edburton (1877-81); Tarring Neville (1871-72 and 1887 – latter not carried out)
W M Shaw
William Maynard Shaw (1842-1918) was the son of a Dorset clergyman and worked as an assistant to C E Kempe for most of the 1860s. He may have been a pupil of G F Bodley (Hall p439) and was certainly working for him in 1871 at the time he designed the north aisle at Nutley. The following year he started the restoration of Langford church, Bedfordshire, but his known architectural works are few since in 1877 he joined the Society of St John the Evangelist (the ‘Cowley Fathers’), an Anglican religious order, as a lay brother (known as Brother Maynard). He spent the greater part of the rest of his life in the USA and South Africa, where the Society was active. After 1891 he spent more time in Britain and assisted Bodley with the building of the Fathers’ church at Cowley, of which he also painted the ceilings. There are churches by him in both the USA and South Africa.
Extended: Nutley (1871)
Thomas Shelbourne, who is said to have completed St Mark, Eastern Road, Brighton was probably a builder rather than an architect, though there is no mention of anyone of the name in Brighton directories or other records covering the period.
Completed: Brighton, – St Mark (1849)
Blanche Henrietta Johnes Shelley (1835-98) was the daughter of Sir John Shelley Bart of Maresfield Park. She painted a window at Maresfield church in memory of her father (d1867). In 1874 she married Hervey Pechell (1840-98) and although she was not her father’s heiress, they resided at Maresfield Park, as well as Upper Brook Street in London. Later Baronets lived near Crediton in Devon, although the family is an old Sussex one. It is not known how Blanche acquired her artistic skills, though an unmarried woman in her position (already aged over 30 at her father’s death) would have had plenty of opportunity.
Clare Consuelo Sheridan (1885-1970) was a member of the Frewen family and first cousin on the maternal side of Winston Churchill. She studied under Sir W R Dick and others. Initially she worked in clay, particularly busts, and was quickly successful, helped by her good connections. Her husband was killed in World War I and she supported herself thereafter by her artistic efforts, as well as writing novels and travel books. She visited Russia soon after the Revolution and her enthusiastic support for it aroused considerable suspicion. Subsequently, she lived in North Africa and then began collecting North American native art, much of which is in the Hastings museum. This led to her taking up woodcarving. Her family home was at Brede but in later life she moved to Hastings. She converted to Catholicism and was buried at Brede.
Lit: B Taylor: Clare Sheridan 1885-1970, Hastings, 1984
Sculptures: Brede, wooden sculpture; Westdean (E), bust
Anthony Sherwin (born 1938) is a member of the RIBA who specialises in work on ancient buildings, largely domestic or agricultural. Based in Ringmer, most of his work is to be found in East Sussex.
Alterations: Heathfield, – All Saints (2010)
Harry Sherwood (1897-1978) studied architecture privately and went into independent practice in 1925. His office until about 1958 was at West Pallant, Chichester, where by 1930 he was in partnership with S Roth, though the practice used only Sherwood’s name. Sherwood was surveyor to the Dean and Chapter of Chichester cathedral and was active in the field of church architecture throughout West Sussex, so it is likely that the churches listed below are by no means all that he worked on. However, he also worked on houses and mainly in his earlier years in other fields, in particular at Wellington College, Berkshire. Sherwood was already living at East Ashling outside Chichester around 1958, when he moved his practice there and that in Chichester became known as Roth and Partners. Sherwood ceased to be surveyor to the cathedral in 1959 and it is likely that his move to East Ashling was the first step towards retirement which followed in 1961. He spent the rest of his life in Cornwall where he died. He had good connections to other architects in Chichester, for M Gill was among the proposers on his FRIBA application and his practice at East Ashling was taken over by P Fleming who had worked with him since 1948.
(My thanks to Richard Renold and Kim Fleming for information about both Sherwood and P Fleming).
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: East Wittering, – St Anne (1958-59)
Altered/restored: Chichester, – St Olave (1956); Cocking (1948-49); East Preston (1938); Felpham (1938); Kirdford (1954-55); Stopham (1952); Yapton (1954)
B C G Shore
Bertram Charles Glossop Shore (1890-1967) was an architect in London, who last appears in directories there in 1966, a year before his death in Exeter. Between 1936 and 1943 he also had an address in Northiam. Before World War II there are references to him as Major Shore and as Lieutenant Colonel after it, so he may be presumed to have served in both world wars. He was active as a member of SPAB and wrote at least two works on the conservation of ancient buildings, though some of his views on the use of chemical agents to stabilise stonework were controversial (Cornerstone vol 32/3 (2011) p33).
Repaired: Catsfield (1956-57); Ewhurst Green (1962); Hastings, – All Saints (1954-58); Ringmer (1937-38)
B Shout R Shout
Benjamin Shout (d1811) was in partnership in Holborn with his nephew, Robert Shout (c1760-1843) as sculptors and masons from 1785 at the latest. Until Benjamin’s death, their work appears to have been joint, though it is possible that Robert was primarily responsible for the design. The firm was largely taken up with the production for the popular market of busts in plaster, together with casts of famous works of art by Canova and others. Details of their origin and training are unknown.
Memorials: Arundel; Fittleworth; Hartfield; Goring; Slaugham
Shrigley and Hunt
Based in Lancaster, the firm emerged out of the well established church decorators, Hudson, Shrigley and Co, who were acquired in 1874 by Arthur William Hunt (1849-1917). Hunt, a builder’s son from Hertfordshire who went north in search of his fortune after developing an interest in stained glass-making and training with Heaton, Butler and Bayne, was gifted in business matters and had been associated with the firm since 1871. Unsurprisingly in view of his background, Hunt accepted commissions for glass, which was made initially by Baillie and Mayer, but the firm soon developed its own glass-making facilities in Lancaster. They attracted talented staff including C Almquist (CA) who became chief designer in 1876 and Edward Holmes Jewitt (1849-1929, whose work is not recorded in Sussex), whose status appears to have been equal to Almquist’s. The two worked closely together and Jewitt settled permanently in Lancaster, but Almquist was not happy away from London and mainly for his benefit the firm opened a branch in 1878 in John Street, Bedford Row; this lasted until 1943, latterly in Bloomsbury Square (KD/L). Glass by the company, which also used its regular designers for art tiles and whole decorative schemes, is widely distributed across the country, though found in particular profusion in Lancashire and present-day Cumbria where, unsurprisingly as they too were based in Lancaster, it worked closely with the architects Paley and Austin. E J Prest was a draughtsman from 1883 to 1892 and H Holiday produced at least one design on a freelance basis, as did others such as H Wilson. Other designers in the earlier years included Joseph Tipping (b1861) (JT) and his father William (b1832) also produced designs, but Hunt’s dislike for these led to the departure of both; the father went to Germany and in 1901 they were living in Acton, Middlesex, whilst by 1911 William was in West Brompton and Joseph was living in Birmingham where he had been born. Even before Hunt died and was initially replaced by his son Arthur Edward (1876-1929), the firm’s commercial success had declined and it was unsuccessful in the most important commission for stained glass in the North West, for the new Liverpool cathedral. Though it was possible to attract new talent to supplement Almquist and Jewitt, including E R Frampton senior and, as a freelancer from 1908, J C Bewsey their effect was only transitory. The firm’s greatest days were past and it did little work outside the North West so that by the 1940s its end seemed near. It was saved by the appointment of Joseph Fisher (1911-82) as a director, who later acquired it. Not only was he himself a designer, but several other leading designers of the day were employed as freelancers, including K New (though his only design was rejected by the client) and R Baldwin. Many of the firm’s designs were abstract, but after its premises were destroyed by fire in 1973, together with most of its archives, it was reduced to a one-man operation under Fisher and closure followed his death in 1982.
Lit: W Waters: Stained Glass from Shrigley and Hunt, Lancaster, 2003
Glass: Chichester, – St Paul; East Hoathly (CA and JT); Eastbourne, – All Saints, – St Saviour; Ewhurst Green; Hastings, – All Souls; Staplecross
W B Simpson and Sons
William Butler Simpson (1798-1882) founded a firm of suppliers at 100 St Martin’s Lane in 1833, mainly of ceramics. They fitted out pubs both inside and out, especially between 1875 and 1895, and supplied tiles for the expanding Tube and for the new Criterion theatre of c1874 in Piccadilly Circus. At least in their earlier years the company also manufactured painted and gilded decorative schemes to the design of others (such as that at Basildon, Berkshire). The firm still exists at Banstead, Surrey and concentrates on commercial work. Among the company’s church fittings were tiled floors and others such as reredoses involved tiling and often mosaic as well. By 1873 the company also appeared as glass stainers at 456 The Strand (KD/L) and at least some of their work was sold under their own name. Among the designers they are known to have used are Lewis Foreman Day (1845-1910) and W Glasby (WG).
Fittings: Brighton, – St Martin, war memorial tiling; Clapham, painted tile panels; Compton, reredos; Eastbourne, – All Souls, tiling; Steyning, tiled panels on reredos
Glass: Compton; Herstmonceux (WG)
F W Skeat
Francis Walter Skeat (1909-c2000) was a follower of Sir J N Comper and pupil of C Webb, who had a studio in St Albans and lived at Harpenden, not far away, an address he left in 1972. His earliest window at St Peter, St Albans, Hertfordshire of 1934 was made by the local firm of Hawes and Harris of Harpenden. He worked at various times for A R Mowbray and J Wippell and Co and also designed glass for Barton, Kinder and Alderson and for Goddard and Gibbs, as well as writing on stained glass. He also produced engraved glass and was most prolific between the 1940s and the early 1970s, though glass by him is dated 1988 (at Prestbury, Cheshire) and a window at Longthorpe, Soke of Peterborough has been dated even later. There is no later mention of him in available British records and he may have gone to Sweden in old age. The date of death given above appears well attested, though Swedish records contain an imprecisely dated reference to the death of a man of the right name and age at some time between 2001 and 2006. This would have been quite plausible since his wife was Swedish and he had lived with her there during World War II.
Glass: Crawley, – St Peter; Donnington; Fishbourne; Hadlow Down; Lurgashall; West Itchenor
John Stephen Skelton (1923-99) was born in Glasgow and was briefly apprenticed to E Gill, his uncle, from whom he started to learn letter-carving. However, Gill died shortly afterwards and Skelton joined Gill’s first apprentice J Cribb at Ditchling as his assistant. Following war service, he took up sculpture, initially in the low relief vein of his uncle, but increasingly fully three dimensional. Some of his work is in Chichester cathedral, notably the font. He was a member and subsequently master of the Art Workers Guild and lived for fifty years at Streat. After his death his workshop there was taken over by his daughter, Helen Mary (b1951), a letter-carver whom he trained and who carved his tombstone in Streat churchyard.
Obit: The Times 22 Dec 1999
Fittings etc: Bexhill, – St Augustine, sculpture; Brighton and Hove, – Holy Nativity, Bevendean. crucifix; Eastbourne, – St John, sculpture; East Wittering, – St Anne, crucifix; Folkington, carved relief; Southease, pews; West Thorney, pulpit
Memorials: Mayfield; Withyham, – St Michael
William Skiller (1838-1901), though born at Rochester, became an architect in Hastings, where he was briefly partner of G Voysey and then more lastingly of A W Jeffery, with whom he was lodging in 1871. Jeffery and Skiller designed a number of public buildings in the town and elsewhere in the south. Skiller committed suicide as a consequence of depression and it is unclear what happened after his death, for there is a reference of 1912 (B 102 p284) to Messrs Skiller and Son of Hastings, though the census records do not name any son. As Jeffery was then still alive, it appears that this was a different partnership and that the one between Jeffery and Skiller had ended, possibly with Skiller’s death.
Designed: Hastings, – Emmanuel (1873-74)
Restored/extended: Guestling (1886 and 1890 – attr); Hastings, – Christ Church, Blacklands (1886-90); – St Clement, Halton (1888 – probably, dem)
A H Skipworth
Arthur Henry Skipworth (1861-1907) was a Yorkshireman by birth and became a pupil and later assistant of Bodley and Garner. In their office he was highly popular because of his good humour. By 1889 he was in practice on his own at 5 Staple Inn (KD/L), where he was associated among others with E P Warren, also a pupil of Bodley. Much of his church work was unbuilt and at least one church that did come into being, St Etheldreda, Fulham Palace Road (1896) is no more. At the time of his early death, he had been in poor health for some time and his anonymous obituarist in The Builder considered that because of a retiring and modest disposition, he had not been sufficiently recognised. Nevertheless, the extensive coverage given to his death indicates the genuinely high esteem in which he was held, despite the small quantity of work he had actually completed.
Obits: The Builder 92 pp469, 483-84, 515 and 731
Restored: Nuthurst (1906-07); Udimore (1897 onwards)
William Slater (1819-72) was a Northamptonshire man of modest origin. He came to London aged 16 and was articled to R C Carpenter, in whose family he lived. Thereafter he became his assistant; among the designs on which he worked was St Paul, Brighton and he also assisted Carpenter in his district surveyorship. He went into independent practice with a fellow-pupil, William Smith (who later became W Bassett-Smith) shortly before Carpenter’s early death, but was prevailed upon by Carpenter’s friends and associates to take over both his practice and responsibility for his family. This was only one sign of his kind nature both in personal relationships and towards the workforce under his control, for which he was famed. At around this time he joined the RIBA. In Carpenter’s former practice he trained R H Carpenter, R C Carpenter’s son, who become his partner from 1863 and for the next ten years they were well known church builders and restorers. He continued the restoration of Chichester cathedral that R C Carpenter had started (his reputation suffered after the tower fell in 1861, not altogether fairly) and worked on Lancing College, where he was probably chiefly responsible for the overall design of the chapel, though it was not brought to its present form until the 1970s. In later years he travelled widely in Europe.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 30 p1002 and 31 p83; lecture by Dr John Elliott to the Victorian Society on R C Carpenter and Slater, 9 February 2011
Designed: Burwash Weald (1866 -67 – as S and Carpenter)
Restored/extended: Beddingham (1857-58); Burwash (1855-56); Chalvington (1872-73 – as S and Carpenter); Cocking (1863); Crowborough, – St John (1869-70 – as S and Carpenter); Ditchling (1863 – as S and Carpenter); Etchingham (1856-57); Flimwell (1872-73 – as S and Carpenter); Henfield (1870-71 – as S and Carpenter); Hollington (1866 – as S and Carpenter but doubtful); Mayfield (1867-69 – as S and Carpenter); New Shoreham (1866 – not executed); Ripe (1864 – as S and Carpenter); Rustington (1861); Sompting (1855); Ticehurst (1855-57); Wadhurst (1858); West Hoathly (1870 – as S and Carpenter); Westmeston (1862); Withyham (Crowborough), – St John (1869-70 – as S and Carpenter); Wivelsfield (1869-70 – as S and Carpenter)
Fitting: Singleton, reredos
John Small has lived in Hove since 1937 and until his retirement was an architect in London for many years, though much of his work is to be found in West Africa. He remains active in various local organisations concerned with heritage matters.
Re-ordered: Brighton and Hove, – St John the Baptist, Palmeira Square (1994)
Diana Smart designed a window for New Shoreham in 1955, which was made by Goddard and Gibbs. She was probably local since the only other glass, known for certain to be by her, dating from 1966, is in the Methodist church at Southwick (www.stainedglassrecords.org retrieved on 31/3/2014). However, the latter is very similar to the west window of Holy Trinity, Shelley Road, Worthing, for which no date is known but which can be ascribed to her with confidence.
Glass: New Shoreham; Worthing, – Holy Trinity (attr)
Sir R Smirke
Sir Robert Smirke (1781-1867) was briefly a pupil of Sir John Soane (1753-1837), but left his office, making an enemy of him in the process, and thereafter studied with a number of architects, including George Dance the younger (1741-1825), and at the RA Schools. He toured Europe and reached Athens, where his study of Greek architecture was to affect his career decisively. On return he went into practice in 1806 and using his skills in Grecian architecture, was soon highly successful, becoming a full RA in 1811. He designed and altered numerous country houses and from 1813, as architect to the Office of Works, produced many public buildings in London in a variety of styles, including the British Museum. He also designed quite a few churches built under the Act of 1818.
Lit: BAL Biog file; DNB
Designed: Brightling (Fuller pyramid) (1810 – attr)
Sydney Smirke (1798-1877) was a considerably younger brother of Sir R Smirke (see immediately above) and was his pupil before travelling to Italy. On return he held a post in the Office of Works until it was abolished, after which he developed a practice like his brother’s, though that was larger. Formally separate, the two frequently worked together and Sydney in due course took over many of his brother’s official positions and undoubtedly benefited from his excellent connections, though he developed his own, chiefly in the Tory party. Sydney completed his brother’s British Museum, adding the circular reading room in the centre and won numerous other official commissions, though he used the Italianate style more than his brother. He designed some churches as well as country houses and was an early restorer of churches – in 1842 he worked on the Temple Church, London. He also adapted Burlington House as the new seat of the RA and other learned societies and became an RA in 1859. He retired to Tunbridge Wells, where he died.
Lit: J M Crook: Sydney Smirke – the Architect of Compromise in J Fawcett (ed): Seven Victorian Architects; BAL Biog file; DNB
Extended: Northiam (1833-47)
Albert Smith (1817/19-99) was a builder and also an architect of Rye, where he was District Surveyor from 1868 until at least 1890 (KD). In 1881 his son Charles (b1850/51), an architect, was living at the same address and is likely to have helped with his later restorations – notably he is probably the person of the name who worked at Northiam (B 52 p455) and by himself at Peasmarsh. Albert built at least one church (St Michael, Tenterden, Kent (1863)) and in 1885 described himself simply as ‘Architect’ (ESDBB). Despite the common name, other builders and masons in Rye called Smith are probably linked, notably J— (active 1815-52 – for a possible candidate see John Smith below) and another Charles (1818/19-after 1891), who in 1854 designed new cemetery chapels in the town (B 12 p666); he could be the Charles Smith, stonemason of Ropewalk, Rye in Robson’s Directory of 1839. Melville’s Directory (1858) shows Charles and Albert as partners, so they were probably brothers and there is also Charles Smith of East Cliff, a builder in 1885 (ESDBB). Yet another Charles (1812/13-79), an architect born in Rye and living at 7 Havelock Road, Hastings, is presumably the Charles Smith who was a member of the SAS from 1852 to 1861. It is likely that further research will establish that some at least of these Charles Smiths are the same person. Charles of Havelock Road had two sons, Archibald (born 1852) and Sydney (born 1850), who given as his assistants in 1871 and were at that address in 1881 (Deacon’s Guide). By 1890 only Sydney is listed and Archibald was living in the Christchurch, Hampshire area. Sydney remained close to Hastings, for he had moved to Bexhill before 1901 and is presumably the architect of the same name in 1905 listed at Station Street, Bexhill in KD. In neither case has it been possible to establish a date of death.
Restored: Iden (1875-76); Northiam (1878-79 and 1887); Playden (1861); Rye (1863); Winchelsea (1850s – possibly)
Memorial: Rye (as ‘Smith’)
There is more than one Charles Smith working in the Rye area during the C19 and most if not all were connected with Albert Smith (for further details, see immediately above). The most likely one to have restored Peasmarsh church is probably the same one who worked with A Smith on Northiam church in 1887. From the date of the work, the surveyor who worked on Rye church could be either the one who later lived in Havelock Road, Hastings or, less probably, the one born in 1818/19.
Restored: Northiam (1887); Peasmarsh (1893); Rye (1839); Winchelsea (1850s – possibly)
C D Smith
C Dorian Smith was described as an architect of Felpham when he worked on Middleton church in 1949. However, his work there has also been given to D H S Prince, who shares the same unusual name of Dorian and there is no other record of an architect of either name. However, there must have been at least one person who did the work at Middleton so some confusion seems likely. Information about Prince is also limited but on balance he seems the more likely..
Extended: Middleton (1949)
C R Smith
Charles Raymond Smith (1801/02-88) was the son of James Smith, also a sculptor, and trained mostly at the RA Schools, as did his elder brother T Smith (see below). He worked from a number of addresses in or near the New Road, including in 1820 what must have been the first one of his own in Norton Street. He produced garden and ornamental statues for several big houses, as well as monuments. Some of the latter were more ambitious than usual and included life-sized figures.
Memorials: Berwick; Worth
G E R Smith
Gerald Edward Roberts Smith (1883-1959) was first an apprentice to E Frampton senior and joined A K Nicholson in 1916. After Nicholson’s death in 1937 he took over the business and took a major part in the replacement of stained glass for restored churches bombed in World War II, particularly in the city of London but also beyond.
Obit: JBSMGP 13/1 pp367-68
See under A K Nicholson for works
John Smith is found for certain in Rye between c1822 and 1845 and may be the mason J— Smith noted above under A Smith who is found down to 1852. He signs a number of tablets in churches in the area which in Gunnis’s view were derived from those by J Bacon junior (works by whom are in Rye and Peasmarsh churches). Though the precise relationship has still to be established, it is likely that John Smith was related to Charles and Albert Smith of Rye (see above), especially as he was also a builder, in which capacity he built Battle station with his son in 1851.
Memorials: Peasmarsh; Udimore (3)
Nathaniel Smith (c1741-1800 or later) was a contemporary of J Nollekens and like him a pupil of Louis Francois Roubiliac (1702/05-1762). He worked mostly for other, better known sculptors, including Joseph Wilton (1722-1803) and Nollekens, and produced little in his own name. He first trained as a miniature painter.
Memorial: West Grinstead
(Julia Mary) Rona Smith (b1934) was born Burrell and lives in the parish of Balcombe. She is the mother of D Verulam and for some years collaborated in decorative work with her daughter. They specialised in stencilling, of which their joint work at Balcombe church is an example.
S R J Smith
Sidney Robert James Smith (1858-1913) was born in Southampton, where he was articled to an otherwise unrecorded architect called Bedborough and worked in his office for four further years. He then joined H E Coe and Robinson and after Robinson died became Coe’s partner in 1879. The last to join Coe’s practice in c1882 was Arthur Catt, a former pupil whose dates cannot be found, and he was to continue the practice with Smith after Coe’s death. Their address at this time was in Furnival’s Inn, London. Smith specialised in public libraries and became closely involved with the benefactor who paid for many of them, Sir Henry Tate (1819-99), the sugar magnate, for whom he was to build several in South London. This in turn led to his most important commission, Tate’s new gallery of British art on Millbank, which was named after him. Other public buildings, jointly with Catt, included workhouses and hospitals.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 114 p411; RIBAJ 20 p412
Designed: Worthing, – Holy Trinity (1882)
Thomas Smith (b1800) was the elder brother of C R Smith (see this section above) and after attending the RA Schools, he started a business in Savoy Street in 1829. He was at this time a wax modeller, but produced also monuments of some ambition, with portrait medallions and busts. No date for his death has been found, but he last exhibited at the RA in either 1872 or 1877.
H W Smithers
Harry Welsford Smithers signed some wall-paintings in St Nicholas, Brighton in 1894 and is said to have been a former churchwarden. The only person of the precise name in the town lived from 1834 to 1931 and was a brewer. In 1867 and 1871 he was living at 89 North Street and thereafter at various addresses, some in Hove. He had a son, Herbert Welsford Smithers (1869-1913) who was also in the brewing business. Both were wealthy and it is interesting that the executors to Herbert’s will included Cecil Somers Clarke, a prominent Brighton solicitor and nephew of Somers Clarke junior, who at least twice in the 1880s worked on alterations at the church. Cecil Somers Clarke’s wife was also an executor, which might suggest a more than purely professional connection, possibly with the architect as well since his family was well established in Brighton legal circles. There is nothing to suggest that either Smithers had artistic leanings, but it is possible that notwithstanding the signature, their responsibility for the paintings was primarily financial.
Painted: Brighton and Hove, – St Nicholas, wall-paintings
James George Smithers (1832/33-1911) was initially an architect in London, but by 1868 he had moved to Colombo, Ceylon, where in 1880 he became architect to the Government of Ceylon. Earlier, he had worked on housing schemes in Wimbledon. He retired to England and died at Camberwell.
Designed: Slinfold (1857 – not carried out)
Restored: Nuthurst (1856-57)
James Snelling was a surveyor, who worked on St John, the Baptist, Crawley in 1827-28. The only other certain reference to him is in Pigot’s Directory(1832), in which he is described as a carpenter in Crawley. However. there might be a connection with a James Snelling, born at Worth near Crawley in 1802, who was a carpenter living in Southampton in both 1851 and 1881.
Altered: Crawley, – St John the Baptist (1827-28)
Paul Soderberg made a stained glass window in Earnley church in memory of the artist Y Hudson, shortly after her death in 1985 and using her designs. No further record of him has come to light, though there are artists of the name in the USA.
Stained glass: Earnley
Alan Sorrell (1904-74) was born in Southend-on-Sea and studied at the Royal College of Art, where he afterwards taught. He was best known for his archaeological reconstructions of ancient monuments, which used to be a feature of most ruins in the guardianship of the former Department of the Environment (now English Heritage). He illustrated books on similar subjects and was a conventional painter in several media. In the 1950s he also taught at Brighton College of Art and this link with Sussex was no doubt the reason for him being named a Chichester Diocesan Artist Craftsman, though he continued to live in Essex.
Paintings: Bexhill, – St Peter
Peter C J Sparks ARIBA studied architecture at Cambridge, where he first appears in the records in 1959. He initially joined the practice known as Lyster, Grillet and Harding. This was originally established in London but is now at Cambridge, where it has undertaken much work for the university and has also planned major housing projects and schools. Sparks moved from this practice in 1979 to become a lecturer in the university Department of Architecture, full time until 1994, and became also a fellow of Girton College until his retirement about 2006. Subsequent to this, he played a prominent part in efforts to save the department from closure.
Fitting: Southbourne, gates
F H Spear
Francis Howard Spear (1902-79) was a pupil of M Travers at the Royal College of Art and his early glass was made at the Glass House (see under Lowndes and Drury). He was in business by 1925 (the date of glass at Warwick School) but he only appears in KD/L between 1938 and 1941, when he was still at the Glass House. Then or shortly afterwards he was also living and working in Edgware and after World War II moved to Reigate, Surrey and the district around. Much of his work is in that county, in Guildford cathedral among others. He was one of those who taught J Piper stained glass techniques and design.
Glass: Bexhill, – St Barnabas; Wivelsfield
W Spencer and Co
Little is known of this company, which had an address in Aldgate in the City, beyond the reference to the supply of a pulpit to Hellingly church in 1907.
Fittings: Hellingly, pulpit
Rev J H Sperling
Rev John Hanson Sperling (1825-94) was the son of an army engineer officer in the Napoleonic Wars and was keenly interested in mediaeval architecture, about which he wrote at least one book, as well as others about various aspects of fittings and heraldry. Even as an undergraduate he may have undertaken the rebuilding of Papworth St Agnes church, Cambridgeshire, where his uncle was rector. He became incumbent of Wicken Bonhunt, Essex and rebuilt the church before moving to Westbourne. He went over to Rome in 1888, but his sympathies were evident much earlier, for in 1871 his son Alfred, aged 14, was a pupil at The Monastery, Ramsgate, built by A W N Pugin; he later became a Roman Catholic priest. In the case of Westbourne church there have been doubts over whether he designed the work himself, but it is likely that he left it to the professional architects he used there. There would otherwise have been little point in employing these, even if they had been willing. His work at Papworth St Agnes does not appear to have involved any professional architect and that at Wicken Bonhunt definitely seems to be his own. He was also an expert on organs.
Designed: Forestside (1852-56 – attr, wrongly)
Restored: Westbourne (1863-64 – oversaw)
C S Spooner
Charles Sidney Spooner (1862-1938) was a pupil and then assistant of Sir A W Blomfield and subsequently of John Dixon Butler (1861-1920), architect to the Metropolitan Police. In 1890 he won the RIBA’s Soane Medallion (Proc RIBA) and in the same year he went into private practice, specialising in smaller churches and houses. Margaret Richardson notes the influence of contemporary American architects such as Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86) on his domestic designs. Spooner lived at Chiswick, but also owned a house in Burwash which he had designed. He was closely involved with the Arts and Crafts movement and counted many of its leading practitioners among his friends, including C Whall and L Davis. He was a member of the SPAB committee and at the age of 25 was elected to the Art Workers Guild. He thus worked firmly within the tradition of W Morris, which led him not only to design furniture and church fittings but also to teach the making of it, as well as designing stained glass. These activities took up an increasing amount of his time in later life.
Lit: BAL Biog file: A Hamilton: Charles Spooner (1862-1938), Arts & Crafts Architect, Stamford 2012
Completed: Rye Harbour (1911-12)
All that is known of James Spray is that he is described as a surveyor in ICBS records in connection with work on Ninfield church, where he is associated with P Carey. The latter is also described in ICBS records as a surveyor, though he seems in fact to have been mainly a builder.
Altered: Ninfield (1833-35)
Rosalyn Sprey (now Mina) is a painter and an artist in stained glass who teaches in Horsham and works with Opus Stained Glass at Poynings. As a stained glass artist, she produces both religious and secular work
Herbert Spurrell (1847-1918) was born at Bexley, Kent, the son of a physician. He became a pupil of Alfred Waterhouse (1830-1905) and subsequently started his own practice in Belvedere, Kent, where his father had moved. In 1875 he went to Eastbourne, where he built many houses with R K Blessley, who was his partner by 1878 (KD), and with —- Field (see under Blessley), who was a further partner in 1882-83. He is listed on his own in 1890 (KD) and W H Murray was his partner from 1897 (BN 85 p722) to 1902, when according to an announcement in the London Gazette the partnership was dissolved. However, in 1905 (KD) the practice was still called Spurrell and Murray and since Spurrell was certainly working with W H Murray’s son C H Murray at 24 Gildredge Road in 1911 (KD), the interruption may have been brief. The partnership may indeed have lasted in name at least until Spurrell died in 1918 (KD), though this occurred in London. Those nominating him for FRIBA included H Currey and A M Mowbray, both active in Eastbourne.
Designed: Polegate (1876 – with Blessley)
Altered: Eastbourne, – St Anne (1883 (with Blessley and Field) and 1893 – dem 1955); – St Saviour (1888 and 1896)
S S Stallwood
Spencer Slingsby Stallwood (1844-1922) was a High Churchman who first went into practice in Folkestone, Kent, where he restored several churches . He then met J Morris, probably through a mutual acquaintance who was a clergyman, and in 1865 they went into practice together in Morris’s home town of Reading. Their work covered both churches and secular work until the partnership ended in 1886. Throughout the time he was in partnership and apparently based in Reading, Stallwood continued to work at Folkestone and on occasion elsewhere without any stated involvement by his partner. Nor did he return to Kent after the partnership ended but stayed in Reading in independent practice and in 1898 became Diocesan Surveyor for Oxford. In that county his work included an extension to Cuddesdon Theological College. He was a devoted freemason.
Lit: H G Arnold and S M Gold: Morris of Reading: a Family of Architects 1836-1958, TAMS 33 (1989) pp45-96
Restored: Horsted Keynes (1885)
H J Stammers
Harry J Stammers (1902-69) trained at J Powell and Sons where he worked closely with J H Hogan, whose cartoons (designs) he prepared. Subsequently he worked for a short time with J Wippell and Co of Exeter before settling in Yorkshire and finally Buckinghamshire.
Edward Stanton (1681-1734) was apprenticed to his father, William (see below), also a sculptor, who had himself continued the family business that lasted for over 100 years. In 1705 Edward took it over. He was a great nephew of Thomas (see immediately below) and produced over 150 memorials, some influenced by the baroque. He was also a mason and was mason to the City of London and, with C Horsnaile, mason to Westminster Abbey; they also collaborated as carvers.
Memorials: Buxted, – St Margaret (attr with Horsnaile); Eastbourne, – St Mary Willingdon (attr with Horsnaile); Northiam (attr with Horsnaile); Waldron (attr with Horsnaile); Warbleton (attr with Horsnaile; Warminghurst
Thomas Stanton (1609/10-1674) was a sculptor, who lived in the parish of St Andrew, Holborn in the City and was a leading member of the Masons Company. His workshop continued under his nephew, William (see immediately below) and great nephew, E Stanton (see immediately above).
Memorials: Rotherfield; Westdean (W) (attr)
William Stanton (1639-1705) inherited the long-running and successful business of his uncle, Thomas (see immediately above) and in due course passed it to his son, Edward (see also above). During this time the business continued in the parish of St Andrew, Holborn, which, in his capacity as mason, he was largely responsible for rebuilding to Wren’s design after the Great Fire. He produced far fewer but mostly more elaborate monuments than his son.
Memorials: Burwash (attr); Lurgashall (attr to a follower); Warminghurst
Thomas Stayner (c1665-1733) (the name is also found as Stainer) was the son of a London mason and held several positions in the Masons Company, becoming Master in 1709. His work uses much baroque detail and the quantity of apprentices he is known to have had suggests a substantial business. That in turn suggests that a considerable number of works by him remain to be identified.
Memorials: Eastbourne, – St Mary, Willingdon (attr); Friston (attr)
Wlilliam Stephen was almost certainly a mason in Lewes when he undertook the rebuilding of the tower of Southover church there. In turn, he may be the William Stephen who was baptised in St Anne’s, Lewes in 1683. The work on Southover tower started in 1714 but was not completed until 1738 and it is not known whether Stephen remained in charge of the project throughout.
Built: Lewes, – St John the Baptist, Southover, tower (1714-38)
Francis William Stephens (1921-2002) was a pupil of M Travers at the Royal College of Art and he also studied at Goldsmiths College, but his varied career started with SOE in World War II. After further study with Travers, in 1950 he became chief designer and in 1956 managing director of Faith Craft, where he established a glass studio in their London premises. Stephens also designed various fittings during this period, as well as sculpture, but his work was centred on stained glass. This remained resolutely pictorial and can be rather sentimental. Faith Craft closed around 1970 at much the same time as Stephens left following his decision to seek ordination. He continued thereafter as a designer on a freelance basis until shortly before his death, whilst also serving as an honorary curate at St Mary, Primrose Hill. This had been Percy Dearmer’s (1867-1936) one-time parish, so Stephens was able to continue his interest in liturgy.
Fittings: Shoreham Beach, font, altar etc
Sculptures: Brighton and Hove, – All Saints, Wilbury Road; Shoreham Beach
This Hastings practice first appears in 1974-75, when one of its partners, J F Woodward (JFW) worked on St Helen, Ore. At least one other partner, D M Hollis (DMH) also worked on churches. The practice is still in existence.
Repaired: Hastings, – St Helen, Ore (1974-75 – JFW); Westfield (1979 – DMH)
John Stone (1620-67) was the youngest son of Nicholas Stone the elder (see immediately below) and after a period in Oxford, when he was contemplating ordination, and involvement in the Civil War spent some time in France, though he was back in England by about 1653, the earliest date of a monument by him. His health appears to have been poor and there is a debate both about the extent of his training and how far he delegated the carving of his works. He is also thought to have designed at least one house.
Monument: Berwick (attr)
N Stone the Elder
Nicholas Stone the elder (1585/88(?)-1647) was born near Exeter and apprenticed in Southwark to I James. He then spent six years in Amsterdam, working for the leading architect there, Henrik de Keyser (1565-1621), whose daughter he married. This stay introduced him to the French and Italianate styles that influenced his subsequent work. After returning to London, his large workshop produced many monuments, which also reflect the growing interest in classical sculpture on the part of courtiers such as the Earl of Arundel. From 1616 he worked extensively for the King (James I and then Charles I) and was also active as a mason. He was involved in building the Banqueting House in Whitehall and almost certainly designed several buildings as well. His career is unusually well documented, but even allowing for the possibility that his importance has thus been exaggerated, there is little doubt that he was the leading sculptor of his time. Three sons were also sculptors, including the younger Nicholas.
Lit: W L Spiers: The Notebook and Account Book of Nicholas Stone, WS 7 (1919); DNB
Memorial: Arundel, memorial (attr)
(Alan) Reynolds Stone (1909-1979) was the son of an Eton housemaster, who named him after Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), with whom there was a family connection; he was educated there and at Cambridge. He trained as a printer at the Cambridge University Press before working briefly with E Gill and then for a printer in Taunton. During this period, in his spare time, he studied engraving and woodcutting and after he became a freelance, undertook much commercial work, including at least one Bank of England note in the 1960s. He designed lettering and taught himself to carve it in stone and wood. He designed and made many memorial tablets.
Lit: Victoria and Albert Museum: Reynolds Stone 1909-1979, 1982
Memorials: Newtimber; Withyham, – St Michael
P D Stonham
Peter Dulvey Stonham (1877-1942) was born in Ashford, Kent, and was an architect’s assistant in Eastbourne in 1901, in the office of F G Cooke (see under F C Cook for a possible link), a leading architect in the town. He started his own practice in 1906 and was later associated with A R G Fenning. According to some sources they became partners, though there is some doubt as to whether this was ever formalised. Stonham had an extensive practice, which extended over much of Sussex and beyond, and by 1911 (KD) also had a branch in Rye. His work included houses of various types and commercial premises. He designed a number of cinemas and, perhaps unexpectedly, some of his churches show the influence of this. They also reveal a talent for massing.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Elisabeth (1935-38 – with S J Tatchell and G C Wilson)
Altered/extended: Eastbourne, – All Saints (1927-29 – as P D S and Fenning); – St Michael (1937)
My thanks are due to Tim Cookson, who provided new information about Stonham and clarified a number of points, not least his date of birth
A signature in this form is to be found on a memorial at Hamsey (dated 1828), together with ‘London’. It is likely to be connected with William Storey of Mount Street, Grosvenor Square (d1825), who had probably succeeded his father of the same name at that address. At least one other instance of work bearing his name but dated after his death is known. In that case it is given to one of his two recorded sons, Charles Henry Storey (b1802), who appears to have been primarily an architect and surveyor, or William Clayton Storey (b1799?). More speculatively, in Buildings of England, Berkshire there is also a reference to ‘J Storey’, stated to have produced a monument at Basildon, Berkshire in 1822. However, Roscoe (p1205) ascribes this to William without qualification and there is no other reference to a J Storey.
A J Stothard
Alfred Joseph Stothard (1793-1864) was the son of a painter and designed and engraved mostly medals and portrait medallions, which were widely admired. He became medal engraver to Queen Victoria in 1839, but in his final years produced little. He also designed a small number of monuments, some also with portraits in the form of medallions.
D Strachan A Strachan
(Robert) Douglas Strachan (1875-1950) was born and trained in Aberdeen and Edinburgh as a graphic artist, particularly in lithography, which may explain his heavy, even expressionist style. He subsequently attended the RA Schools in London and was also a painter, though he initially worked for two years as a newspaper illustrator and cartoonist in Manchester. It appears to have been during his time in that city that Strachan first studied glassmaking under Walter Williams ((1874-1965) of Chester (P Cormack: Arts and Crafts Stained Glass p137). In 1898 he returned to Aberdeen and during this period he worked closely with his brother Alexander (AS – 1879-1954), who established his own glass making business there, at which his brother’s glass was also made for many years. Both brothers had at least short lasting links to C Whall, though there is some doubt in Douglas’s case whether these amounted to anything formal; however, Whall’s influence was undeniably strong. So, at a later date, was that of William Blake (1757-1827), from whom Douglas derived his liking for symbolism. When in 1909 both Strachans were appointed to teaching positions at the Edinburgh College of Art, they moved there and continued their previous arrangements, though only Alexander stayed at the college for any length of time and Douglas later moved his studio outside the city. Douglas was certainly the finest of the Scottish stained glass artists, if not the greatest British stained glass artist of the generation after Whall. He became internationally known when he won the competition to design the glass in 1912-13 that was the British contribution to the Palace of Peace in The Hague. In Britain, the greater part of his work is, unsurprisingly, in Scotland, notably the windows in the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh castle (1925-27), another major cycle. The interest in Celtic art of Scottish artists marked them off from their English contemporaries.
Lit: P Cormack: In Praise of Douglas Strachan, JSG 30 (2006) pp116-28; A C Russell: Stained Glass windows of Douglas Strachan, (2nd ed), Aberdeen, 1994
Glass: Eastbourne, – St Mary; Fernhurst (AS); West Hoathly; Winchelsea
G E S Streatfeild
Granville Edward Stewart Streatfeild (1869-1947) was born in Howick, Northumberland, before his father, who was related in an as yet unascertained way to T E C Streatfeild (see this section immediately below), became Rector of Frant and sent his son to Marlborough. His brother, William Champion Streatfeild (1865-1929) was also in the church, as successively vicar of Amberley and Eastbourne and finally though briefly Bishop of Lewes. The spelling of the name used here seems to be correct as it appears thus in KD/L and Dolman’s Dictionary, for both of which he would have provided the entry, though it also occurs, particularly in some censuses, as ‘Streatfield’. In 1891, already an established architect, he was present in Frant with his parents and despite his close ecclesiastical links his work was not limited to churches, but included houses in the then fashionable Queen Anne style and schools. He was a pupil of Sir T G Jackson and articled to W O Milne and J C Hall – it may be significant that Milne had worked with T E C Streatfeild – and afterwards worked for Sir R Blomfield before practising in London and elsewhere from an address in Stone Buildings, Lincoln’s Inn (KD/L). Of his partner from 1921, only his name, Frank Atwell, is known.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Bexhill, – All Saints, Sidley (1909, completed 1927-29 with Atwell); Brighton and Hove, – St Augustine (1896-1913); Eastbourne, – St Michael (1901-11); Ewhurst, – mission church at ‘Staplehurst’ (presumably St Mark, Staplecross) (1894); Heathfield, – St Richard (1912-15); Stonegate (1904)
Extended: Felpham (1899)
T E C Streatfeild
Thomas Edward Champion Streatfeild (1848-82) was the son of a clergyman and was born at East Ham. He had his office at 44 Great Marlborough Street, London, where W O Milne also worked. He won an RIBA prize for drawing in 1871 (Proc RIBA) and exhibited at the RA in 1874, the year after he had designed a large mansion at Cambridge and extended a church at Matlock Bath, Derbyshire. He died young and there is a memorial to him at Ferryside church, Carmarthenshire, which he designed. Some uncertainty exists about who designed some of the churches ascribed to T E C Streatfeild, particularly as compared with G E S Streatfeild (see this section immediately above) who was related, though the precise nature of this has not been established. However, T E C Streatfeild was more careful about ensuring the proper spelling of his name in official records. He cannot be the ‘Streatfield’ who designed All Saints, Sidley; this must be G E S Streatfeild, who certainly worked there later. A much later reference to the effect that J (sic) E C Streatfield (sic) (to whom the dates 1847-1910 are given) designed All Saints, Eastbourne (RIBAJ 13 (1912) p654) can hardly be correct. There is further complication over the authorship of All Saints, Woodford Green, east London, which dates from 1874. This is said to be by F E C Streatfeild but in this case a simple misreading is the most likely explanation.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Eastbourne, – All Saints (1877-83)
A E Street
Arthur Edmund Street (1855-1938) was the son of G E Street (see this section immediately below), in whose office he trained after Eton and Oxford. His father died in the same year that he ended his pupillage and he completed many of his commissions. He also wrote what, despite faults, remains the only substantial work on his father’s life and work. A E Street ended his professional career in 1919 when he retired to Bath.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Rye (1882-83); Graffham (1885-89)
G E Street
George Edmund Street (1824-81) was born in Woodford, Essex, the son of a solicitor, but spent most of his youth in Devon, where he studied the local churches in the company of his brother, also a solicitor, and acquired a profound knowledge of the gothic style. He commenced articles in his brother’s office, but soon turned to architecture and was articled to Owen Carter of Winchester (1806-59). Subsequently he became an assistant in Sir George G Scott (see this section above) and Moffatt’s office from 1844-49. Deeply religious and with an attention to detail that was already legendary, he started to design churches on his own account during this period, though he started his own practice only from 1849. Although a member of the Ecclesiological Society, his early work shows him moving away from the ‘early pointed’ gothic preferred by the society. From 1850 he travelled on the continent, writing about what he found (his work on Spanish gothic aroused especial interest); the major immediate influence on his own work was however the Italian gothic, especially the use of brick and polychromy. Subsequently early French gothic became a more dominant influence. One particular consequence of this was Street’s liking for apsidal east ends, rare among mediaeval English churches. His undoctrinaire approach had a strong effect on many of his pupils, who included R N Shaw (see this section above). From an early stage in his independent career, Street was associated with Samuel Wilberforce (1805-73), who as Bishop of Oxford appointed him Diocesan Architect – the Wilberforces owned the East Lavington estate in West Sussex, though Street did not in fact restore the church there. His practice was based first in Wantage, Berkshire and later Oxford, before he moved to London in 1856. Already one of the leading church architects of the age, Street won the competition for the new Law Courts in 1866 and this dominated the rest of his life, though he did not give up work on churches. There is still no modern full scale study of him, though Brownlee’s work contains a valuable introductory chapter and N Jackson looks at his churches.
Lit: D B Brownlee: The Law Courts: the Architecture of G E Street, 1984; N Jackson: George Edmund Street (1824-81): an Architect on Holiday, in C Webster (ed) 2011, pp163-98; A E Street: Memoir of G E Street RA, 1888; DNB
Designed: Eastbourne, – St Saviour (1867-68); Milland (1878-80 – erroneous)
Restored: Barlavington (1873-74 – attr); Bignor (1876-78); East Lavington (1846-47 – erroneous); Graffham (1857 and 1874-75); Rye (1877-82); ‘Woollavington’ (nd – though frequently identified with East Lavington, this is certainly not that and is probably another reference to Graffham)
W C Street
William Charles Street (1835-1913) was a London architect, who was unconnected with the better known G E Street (see this section immediately above). He trained at the School of Design, Somerset House and from 1860 to 1876 worked as an engineer for Sir James Brunlees (1816-92), one of the most renowned railway engineers of the age. Thereafter, Street turned to architecture, with an office in the City, and designed many buildings, mostly of a commercial nature, though at least one house by him at Oulton Broad, Suffolk, is known and he designed or altered at least two churches in north London (one of which was bombed). A partnership with H G English is known between 1880 and 1882. W C Street had houses at Liss, Hampshire and Bognor.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Littlehampton, – All Saints, Wick (1881); Milland (new) (1878-80)
A P Strong
Alfred Pope Strong (1834-93) had German connections, shown by the case of his father who somehow became Bavarian Consul in Greece. After education in England, he became a pupil of Matthew Digby Wyatt (1820-77) or the latter’s elder brother Thomas Henry Wyatt (1807-80) (Howell and Sutton p139)) and of an architect in Hamburg named Marchand. He was back in London by 1861, when he was elected ARIBA (Proc RIBA). The German links may explain the use of the Byzantine style for his only Sussex church, as the approach to style there was less doctrinaire than in Britain or France. His partner from 1867-88 was Samuel Parr (1826-1915). The practice became known as Parr, Strong and Parr, with the second Parr being Samuel’s son James Edmeston Parr (1856-1923), who departed for North America around 1888 and ultimately established a large practice in Vancouver, Canada.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Eastbourne, – All Souls (1882)
A J Style
Arthur James Style (1847-1914) was born in Southborough, Kent, the son of a clergyman and teacher. A pupil of J Newton and then assistant to Sir George G Scott (see above), he started a practice in London, designing mostly schools and houses. In 1888 this was at 1 Westminster Chambers, SW1 (B 53 p416) and it continued under his name until at least 1917 (KD/L). In 1871 he was living in Thames Ditton, where his father was born, and all censuses for the rest of his life show he continued to live there as an unmarried lodger.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Extended: Crawley Down (1888-89); Hastings, – All Saints (1894)
E R Suffling
Ernest Richard Suffling (1855-1911) was the son of a blind-maker in London, though the name is found mostly in Norfolk, where he died in the County Asylum. He trained in glass making under A Gibbs and from 1879 to 1908 his address was 436 Edgware Road (KD/L), though in 1891 and 1901 he was living in Paddington and in 1908-09 had an address in Portsdown Road there, after which his private address disappears from KD/L. No partners are known and for much of the time he was almost certainly working alone, though references to his business between 1884 and 1899 as Suffling and Co could suggest he had at least one associate. He does not appear to have been prolific, though his known glass is widely spread geographically and he also wrote on the subject and on brasses, particularly with regard to Norfolk. He also wrote more generally about that county, showing a particular interest in the Broads.
Glass: Ashurst; Rusper (Suffling and Co)
Among the designers of stained glass used by J Powell and Sons in the 1870s and 1880s was one Suter. Like many of those working for Powell’s both then and later, very little is known of him. It is unlikely that he was a relative of R G Suter (see above) who was well settled in Australia by then but there is no certainty.
Glass: Battle; Chailey, – St Peter
R G Suter
Richard George Suter (1827-94) was the son of an architect, also Richard (1797-1883), and was educated at St Paul’s school and Trinity College, Cambridge. He became ARIBA in 1853, but already called himself an architect in 1851, when his address was 3 Upper Woburn Place, St Pancras. In 1858 and 1863 his address was 3 Prince’s Place, Brighton, which was probably his office – in 1861 he was living at 1 Lansdowne Terrace West (KD) and described himself as surveyor for Hove, employing four clerks; by 1862 he is known to have held the position of district surveyor for Hove, so it is likely he already held the same position at the earlier date. At the same time he was involved in several projects concerned with laying out the mid-C19 parts of Hove, which must have entailed at least a risk of conflicts of interest. From 1864 to 1868 he was the partner of E E Scott (see this section above), an almost exact contemporary, at Scott’s office at 46a Regency Square, Brighton. However, by 1869 he was back in London at 23 Fenchurch Street, previously his father’s address, and soon afterwards emigrated to Australia, where he practised in Queensland until about 1875, remaining an ARIBA. During this time he was diocesan architect in Brisbane and designed at least ten churches in the area, some of them of wood. He subsequently forsook both Queensland and architecture following some disputes with clients and moved to Melbourne, where by 1880 he was a minister of the Catholic Apostolic Church (or Irvingites). This was despite the fact that his brother, Andrew Burn Suter (1830-95), was Bishop of Nelson, New Zealand and a leading figure in the development of the Anglican church there (Dictionary of New Zealand Biography).
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Portslade by Sea (1863-64 with E E Scott)
Reconstructed: Keymer (1866 with E E Scott)
There is no mention in KD/L of a glass maker in London of this name. who is known only from a single reference to glass he produced at Rye, during the years 1886 to 1888. However, in 1881 there is a Thomas Swaffield Brown (1845-1914) who was living in Peckham, south east London, and described himself as a sculptor, artist and general designer. Ten years later he had moved to Sheffield and though continuing to call himself an artist, also described himself as a designer for metalwork. He continued with this type of work for the rest of his life and in 1911 had dropped the ‘artist’ completely. He is said on doubtful authority to have been a member and even master of the Art Workers Guild, but he does not appear in the Guild’s list of members, though he was involved with a comparable local body in Sheffield. There is no evidence that he ever designed stained glass, but in his earlier more general phase before moving to Sheffield this would be plausible, given his obvious interest in the applied arts, though it is unlikely he was the maker.
Caroline M Swash (b1941 nee Payne) is the third generation of her family to make and design stained glass, studying at Gloucestershire College of Art and London University. Some of her glass has been made for Goddard and Gibbs, and she also writes about it. Much of her work is semi-abstract or symbolic and displays a marked preference for blue. She has produced glass for Gloucester cathedral and the rebuilt church of St Barnabas, Dulwich, as well as teaching at Central St Martin’s College, and is a member of the Art Workers Guild.
H H C Sweatman
Hector Henry Cecil Sweatman (1909-86) was an architect in St Leonards, where there are records of him in directories between 1951 and 1984.
Designed: Hastings, – St Barnabas, Ore (1954)
Repaired: Whatlington (1955-56)
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